*IACCACI, Lieutenant August Thayer - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918 - Home in New York City (student); American citizen; joined RFC (Canada) and appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 1 November 1917; sailed from Canada 19 November 1917; Headquarters, TD, 14 December 1917; No.1 School of Aerial Fighting, 28 March 1918; No.20 Squadron, 24 April to 4 October 1918; to No.14 General Hospital, 4 October 1918; relinquished commission due to ill health, 15 March 1919. Brother of Paul T. Iaccaci.
This officer has taken part in many engagements and he and his observer have been most successful in destroying enemy machines. A resolute and skilful airman.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation forwarded to Royal Air Force Headquarters on 7 July 1918.
On the 19 May 1918, when on Offensive Patrol over Merville with Sergeant Newland as his Observer, a fight took place between eleven of our machines and 20 enemy scouts. One Triplane was crashed by the above close to Vieux Berquin.
On the 27 May 1918 the same two when returning from Offensive Patrol were attacked by eight Pfalz Scouts. Sergeant Newland shot one down which fell southwest of Neuve Eglise.
On the 6 June 1918 the same two were in a formation which engaged seven Pfalz Scouts near Wervicq; they shot down one which crashed on the railway northeast of Wervicq.
On the 17 June 1918 the same couple were members of a formation of 14 which attacked 16 enemy scouts between Comines and Seaden. They shot down a Pfalz which fell near Halluin.
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*IACCACI, Captain Paul Thayer - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918 - Home in New York City (student); American citizen; joined RFC (Canada) and appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 1 November 1917; sailed from Canada 19 November 1917; Headquarters, TD, 14 December 1917; No.1 School of Aerial Fighting, 28 March 1918; No.20 Squadron, 24 April to 8 September 1918; No.48 Squadron, 8 September to 4 October 1918; to No.14 General Hospital, 4 October 1918; relinquished commission due to ill health, 15 March 1919. Brother of August T. Iaccaci.
A bold and successful fighter who on for offensive patrols has accounted for six enemy aeroplanes; two he shot down himself, and four were destroyed with the assistance of his observer. In these several encounters the formation in which Lieutenant Iaccaci was serving was engaged against heavy odds.
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ILLSLEY, Lieutenant Hugh Percival - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded effective 1 April 1918. Born 15 February 1896. Home in Westmount, Quebec (architect); formerly in 148th Battalion, CEF; to Reading, 15 February 1917; to Brooklands, 2 March 1917; to Headquarters, Training Brigade, 11 April 1917; to No.34 Squadron, 1 June 1917 as observer; to Reading, 10 September 1917; to No.17 TS, 22 December 1917; graded as Flying Officer, RFC, 22 December 1917; to A and ICS [?], 30 December 1917; to No.66 TS, 27 January 1918; to A and IC School, 12 March 1918; to No.52 Squadron (observer), 24 March 1918; to No.8 Squadron, 27 January 1919; relinquished commission, 14 March 1919. Types flowm were DH.6, BE.2b, Armstrong Whitworths and RE.8.
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INCE, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arthur Strachan - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 24 February 1916 - Born 31 October 1892; home in Toronto (salesman, Fairbanks-Morse); passed tests at Curtiss Flying School, 11 July 1915; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS, 12 July 1915; sailed from Montreal on SS Scandinavia, 24 July 1915; to Dover, 11 September 1915; at Calshot, 18 December 1917. First Canadian-born RNAS recipient of an award (see ARNOLD, H.J. for earlier award).
For his services as gunner and observer on 14th December 1915, when with Flight Sub-Lieutenant Graham he attacked and destroyed a German seaplane off the Belgian coast.
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INWOOD, Acting Major John - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Home in Medicine Hat, Alberta; went overseas with 3rd Canadian Mounted Rifles; to RFC as 2nd Lieutenant, 7 February 1916; served in Canada, 1917-1918 as Engineer Officer.
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IRELAND, Captain Harold Mervyn - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 27 February 1889 in Toronto; home there; obtained ACA Certificate No.464 at Stinson School, 26 April 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, 9 May 1916; taken on strength of RNAS in UK, 11 June 1916; trained at Crystal Palace, Eastbourne and Eastchurch; to Dover 10 January 1917; postings on DHist card are confusing and contradictory for 1917, including No.1 (N), No.3 (N) and No.9 (N) Squadrons; to No.11 (N) Squadron (later No.211 Squadron), March 1918 to 6 October 1918; hospitalized, 5 October 1918; No.1 Group, 16 April 1919; with No.123 (Canadian) Squadron, June 1919.
On the 29th August this officer was leader of a large formation detailed for a long distance bombing raid on certain enemy docks. A strong and adverse wind was blowing and thick clouds almost obscured the ground, rendering the task of reaching such a distant object one of great difficulty. Carefully studying the compass and making what he considered due allowance for the wind he led his formation to a point which he judged would be in the vicinity of the objective. A break in the clouds showed that he was correct, and the docks were effectually bombed. During the five months Captain Ireland has been with his present squadron he has led forty-three long distance raids, and the foregoing is only one instance of many in which he has shown judgement, skill and determination of a very exceptional nature.
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IRELAND, Captain John Graham - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 12 May 1896; home in Montreal (clerk); obtained ACA Certificate No.415 at Wright School, Augusta, Georgia, 16 February 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS in Ottawa, 12 February 1916; to RNAS in Britain, 27 March 1916; to Dundee, 3 August 1916; to Felixstowe, 5 March 1917 for course on Porte flying boat; to Dundee, 15 May 1917; to Canada, 11 March 1918; to Dundee, 1 May 1918; awaiting repatriation, 18 April 1918. Served in RCAF during Second World War (Group Captain).
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IRVING, Captain Gordon Budd - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918 - Home in Toronto (bank official); joined RFC in May 1917; trained at Camp Borden; overseas in July 1917; No.1 Air Stores Depot, 8-11 November 1917; No.19 Squadron, 16 November 1917 to 11 August 1918 (killed in action, Dolphin E.4432).
He has carried out numerous offensive patrols and under his able leadership many enemy formations have been successfully engaged. He has personally accounted for six enemy aircraft, and by is consistent keenness and fearlessness he sets a fine example to the pilots in his squadron.
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IRWIN, Captain William Roy - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born in Ripley, Ontario, 7 June 1898; home there (student); appointed Probationary Flight Officer, RNAS in Ottawa, 14 March 1917; to RFC, 11 April 1917; served in No.56 Squadron 27 January to 15 September 1918 (wounded); to No.29 Group, 28 April 1919. Served in RCAF, Second World War and awarded MBE, 8 January 1944 (Commanding Officer, No.3 SFTS; see Second World War data base). Appointed to Canadian Transport Board, 1959, and to new Board of Transport Commissioners, 1967. Died in Ottawa, 14 January 1969. See Fall 1981 issue of Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society for extensive biography. Photographs of him held by National Defence Photo Centre are as follows: RE-64-2943 (Private in University of Toronto Overseas Training Company), PMR-71-659 (elementray flying training), PMR 73-192 (W.O. Boger and Irwin), RE-64-2944 (as a Group Captain, being invested with MBE_, RE-64-2990 (portrait photo, Calgary, 1943), RE-64-2942 (at desk, Calgary, 1943).
This officer is a fine leader, displaying tactical skill and personal gallantry. On the 10th August he led his flight down to attack fifteen Fokkers. In the engagement that ensued he showed brilliant leadership and personal courage, accounting for two machines himself. He has destroyed five enemy aeroplanes and brought down three out of control.
IRWIN, Captain William Roy - Bar to Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918.
This officer is an exceptionally skilful pilot leader, combining fine fighting qualities with sound, clear judgement. On the 12th August he led his patrol to attack a large formation of Fokker biplanes; he himself accounted for two of them. On a later date, attacking a formation of Fokker biplanes, he again destroyed two, the patrol accounting for two others.
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*JACKSON, Major J.L., MC - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Connaught Rifles; for services in Canada (Officer Commanding, No.78 Canadian Training Squadron, North Toronto).
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JAMES, Lieutenant Mansell Richard - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Watford, Ontario; appointed 2nd Lieutenant, RFC, 22 September 1917; to Headquarters, Training Depot, 29 October 1917; to No.14 Wing, 12 February 1918; to No.62 General Hospital, Italy, 28 April 1918; served in No.45 Squadron, Italy, 12 February 1918 to 5 February 1919. To England, 17 February 1919; to repatriation camp, 13 April 1919. Killed flying a Sopwith Camel in American Pulitzer Prize Air Race, 29 May 1919 (Journal of the American Aviation Historical Society, Vol.13, No.4, Winter 1968).
An excellent scout pilot who has at all times shown great skill, courage and determination in attacking enemy machines. During a short period of time he has destroyed nine enemy aeroplanes.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1511 has a recommendation for a Mention in Despatches (apparently not granted). It notes that he was awarded the DFC on 17 September 1918, which probably refers either to the date it was submitted or the date it took effect (gazetting date notwithstanding).
This officer joined No.45 Squadron on 13 February 1918 and has invariably shown a very keen and offesive spirit. His daring and skill as a patrol leader has always been of the highest order. He has destroyed the following enemy aircraft:
On 3 June 1918, one DV scout at Arten, destroyed.
7 June 1918, one Albatross D.III at Sammerino, do.
do., do. Collicellio, do.
20 July 1918, one DV scout east of Piave do. (in flames)
do., do. Piave Valley do. (in flames)
5 August 1918, one Scout (new type), Valley of St.Pietro (destroyed)
6 August 1918, one A.E.G. two-seater, Portognetti (destroyed)
31 August 1918, one D.III, our lines (detstroyed)
do. one D.III do. (destroyed in pieces)
For his excellent work both on the ground and in the air, I have the honour to recommend that Captain M.R. James, DFC, be mentioned in the next Despatches. Awarded Distinguished Flying Cross 17th September 1918.
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JARVIS, Lieutenant Arthur Eyguem de Montaingne - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 30 November 1894 in Napanee, Ontario; attended Trinity College, Port Hope, 1906 to 1913; home in Toronto; enlisted in Queen's Own Rifles, Toronto, late in 1915; commissioned and sent overseas with 38th Battalion, CEF. Wounded at Vimy Ridge. To RFC, 6 August 1917; to No.49 Training Squadron, 11 September 1917; to Egypt, 19 October 1917; to No.47 Squadron, 11 March 1918; to No.150 Squadron, 7 November 1918; to Base Depot, 7 March 1919; to England, 22 March 1918. To Eastchurch (instructing), 30 April 1919. Dodds says he flew in No.17 Squadron and No.150 Squadron, but elsewhere he says Nos.47 and 150 Squadrons. RG.24 Accession 95-96/670 lists an array of types flown - Shorthorn, DH,6, Avros, Bristol Scout, Nieuport, Sopwith bombers , Vickers Bullet, Camel, BE.2c, BE.12a, SE.5a and Sopwith monoplane (?).
A bold and determined fighter. On the 26th of July he engaged and shot down an enemy machine which was seen to crash. Later on the same date he attacked a hostile two-seater and forced it to land near our lines; both occupants were taken prisoners.
JARVIS, Lieutenant Arthur Eyguem de Montaingne - Croix de Guerre avec Palme (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 October 1919.
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JARVIS, 2nd Lieutenant Ralph Hemsworth - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 November 1916. Home in Toronto; attended University of Toronto, 1908-1912 (Applied Science); attended Curtiss School, Toronto, early 1915 but no certificate; direct entry to RFC in Canada, 7 December 1915; to England in December 1915; to France, May 1916, serving in No.4 Squadron; appointed Flight Commander, August 1916; at Brooklands, Britain, March to July 1917; joined No.7 Squadron as Flight Commander, 1 August 1917. To Britain as Acting Major in late 1917 or early 1918. Killed at Grantham, England, 27 February 1918, flying with a pupil.
For conspicuous gallantry in action while observing. He engaged and drove off three enemy machines, after which he returned and completed his work. Later, he carried out a valuable reconnaissance during a very strong gale. He has on many previous occasions done very fine work.
JARVIS, Captain Ralph Hemsworth - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 April 1918. Public Records Office Air 1/1169/204/5/2592 has recommendation forwarded to RFC Headquarters, 6 January 1918; with No.7 Squadron when recommended.
For continuous good work as a counter-battery observer, from 30 July 1917 to 5 January 1918. He has set a high standard of skill to his flight, and an inspiring example of working under all conditions.
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JENKINS, 2nd Lieutenant William Stanley - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Montreal (publicity agent); formerly in 87th Canadian Infantry Battalion, October 1915 to July 1917 (Private to Corporal); to RFC and appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 8 November 1917 although he seems to have been training as early as 8 August 1917; to No.40 TS, 13 March 1918; to No.210 Squadron, 15 May 1918 (but see correspondence below, giving 19 May 1918), then immediately struck off to hospital; to duty again 2 August 1918; injured 3 October 1918, but returned to No.210 Squadron, 14 October 1918; repatriated 6 April 1919.
An intrepid pilot who has met with much success in numerous battles. On one day last month he led three machines in an attack on seven of the enemy. He engaged in combat with four separate enemy machines, set fire to one at a height of 14,000 feet, and then, getting on the tail of another, fired 150 rounds into it, resulting in complete destruction. Lieutenant Jenkins has, on previous occasions, destroyed or brought down out of control six enemy aircraft.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has recommendation dated 19 September 1918 and stating he had served 15 ½ months in France and Belgium. Curiously, it does not mention a total of "six enemy aircraft", so there may have been another document submitted before his DFC was approved.
On 17 September 1918 while leading a formation of three machines, Lieutenant Jenkins attacked seven enemy aircraft over Ostend. He had engagements with four separate enemy aircraft, one of which burst into flames at 14,000 feet. Getting on the tail of another, he fired about 150 rounds at point blank range. This enemy aircraft went down and crashed south of Ostend.
In addition to above, this pilot has destroyed two enemy machines, driven two down out of control and driven down a hostile kite balloon deflated. Together with another pilot he has also destroyed a further enemy machine.
This recommendation is also found in Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/13.
JENKINS, 2nd Lieutenant William Stanley - Bar to Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919.
An exceptionally skilful pilot, conspicuous for his courage and disregard of danger. Since 5th October he has accounted for four enemy aeroplanes crashed and one driven down out of control. On 10th November he crashed an enemy two-seater, and later on destroyed a Fokker, in addition to attacking enemy troops and transport with marked success.
Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/13 has considerable documentation respecting both his promotion and the Bar to his Distinguished Flying Cross. They are transcribed here in chronological sequence. The first is a letter dated 10 November 1918 from the Commanding Officer, No.210 Squadron to Headquarters, No.13 Wing:
I strongly recommend Temporary 2nd Lieutenant William Stanley Jenkins, DFC, RAF of this squadron for promotion to Flight Commander vice Temporary Captain Clifford Joseph, DFC, recommended for transfer to Home Establishment.
Lieutenant Jenkins has been on Active Service with this squadron since 19 May 1918. During that time he has destroyed by himself eight enemy machines and driven down three others out of control. With other pilots he has also destroyed a further enemy machine.
He has had considerable experience in leading a Flight and is in every way suitable for promotion.
The second document is a formal recommendation from the Commanding Officer, No.210 Squadron:
I beg to recommend the above named officer for such award as you may think fit.
Lieutenant Jenkins was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on 5th october last. The following are particulars of his achievements since that date.
On 10th November 1918, Lieutenant Jenkins observed a DFW two-seater at 4,000 feet over Merbes le Chateau. He got into position and attacked from the rear, closing to about 25 yards and firing 300 rounds. Enemy aeroplane dived steeply and pilot followed him below 1,000 feet and saw him crash into some trees.
Later the same day, Lieutenant Jenkins attacked a Fokker biplane over Sinche at point blank range, firing 150-200 rounds directly into the cockpit and engine. Enemy aeroplane fell absolutely out of control and pilot observed him crash near Ressaix. Confirmed by another pilot of patrol.
On the same day, Lieutenant Jenkins fired 350 rounds on motor transport on road just south of Merbes St.Marie (northeast of Maubeuge). Some increased speed and some stopped. Two lorries apparently collided.
On 9th November 1918, Lieutenant Jenkins fired 600 rounds on two anti-aircraft batteries in wood at Sheet 51.J.17.b. Both batteries ceased fire and did not fire again before pilot left the vicinity (half an hour afterwards). Pilot also fired 270 rounds at transport going east on Sheet 45.W.8.d. The road was completely covered with the tops of overhanging trees and he was consequently unable to observe result.
On 6th November 1918, Lieutenant Jenkins fired 600 rounds from 4,000 to 300 feet on horse transport and motor transport on roads between La Longueville and Maubeuge. Transport stopped and was more or less demoralized.
Lieutenant Jenkins has been on Active Service with this squadron since 19th May 1918. His total record is:
By himself With other pilots
Enemy aeroplanes driven down in flames 1 -
Enemy aeroplanes crashed 7 1
Enemy aeroplanes out of control 3 -
Enemy kite balloon driven down deflated 1 -
Lieutenant Jenkins is an exceptionally good pilot and a very successful Flight Leader. In addition to the one Fokker Biplane which he crashed on 10th November, two other Fokker Biplanes were destroyed at the same time by the Flight which he was leading.
With this is a list headed "Number and Date of Combats Referred to in Attached Recommendation re 2/Lt. W.S. Jenkins, DFC, RAF". This transcriber does not know the significance of the number on the left; it may refer to reports in another file:
281 10 Nov 1918
266 1 Oct 1918
255 29 Sept 1918
240 24 Sept 1918
238 17 Sept 1918 (two)
231 3 Sept 1918
226 31 Aug 1918
225 21 Aug 1918
222 14 Aug 1918
162 6 June 1918
153 27 May 1918
On 22 November 1918 the Commanding Officer, No.210 Squadron submits a recommendation for "Promotion of 2nd Lieutenants to Lieutenants on completion of 12 Months Commissioned Service" on which he describes Jenkins as "A very capable officer. Has been leading and in charge of a Flight for three months."
On 11 December 1918 Jenkins himself writes to the Commanding Officer, No.210 Squadron. He styles himself "Lieutenant Jenkins" (had his promotion, at least to acting rank, come through ?); he also identifies himself as having the DFC and Bar (long before the Bar is officially gazetted).
I have the honour to request that you will forward this, my second application, that my graduation be post-dated to March 25th. [He evidently means "back-dated").
At present my certificate from the Central Flying School is dated April 1st, which deprives me of the rank of 1st Lieutenant by 24 hours.
My graduation was delayed considerably owing to the fact that 87 Overseas Squadron - where I was training - was posted overseas before I had completed my training. I was then posted to 40 T.S., Croyden, where I had to do many of the tests over again.
Without taking into consideration this delay, over which I had no control, I had completed all tests, as listed on page 10 of Royal Flying Corps Training Card, by March 25th, my total time, dual and solo, then being 39 hours 55 minutes,
On March 8th and 10th I flew a Sopwith Scout satisfactorily at Hounslow, No.8653.
On March 6th I made a cross-country flight of two hours 30 minutes on Avro No.4378, landing at Reading and Northolt.
On March 22nd I attained a height of 12,000 feet on Avro No.9779 at Croyden, remaining there for 30 minutes.
The above flights are all entered in my log book and signed by Major Callaghan, O.C. 87 Squadron and by Captain Taylor, O.C. 40 Squadron.
I brought a chit signed by my Flight Commander concerning my cross-country flight with 87 Squadron to No.40 T.S., but they said I had to do another one. I had to wait eight or ten days for this owing to unfavourable weather and to a machine not being available.
Under these circumstances, and considering that I had done the required time in the air and passed all tests by March 25tg, I respectfully request that my graduation be ante-dated to that date.
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JENNER, Lieutenant Wilfred James Pardo - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Home in Blenheim, Ontario (law student); at Headquarters, Training Depot, 15 January 1918; to No.2 School of Aerial Gunnery, 19 March 1918; with No.204 Squadron, 3 April to 4 October 1918 (wounded); to England, 26 December 1918.
A bold and gallant officer who has destroyed two enemy machines. On 4th October whilst on a low bombing raid, he was shot through both legs. Although suffering great pain, he, with great courage and devotion to duty, continued his flight and dropped his bombs on the objective before returning to his aerodrome.
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JOHNSON, 2nd Lieutenant and Honorary Lieutenant Charles Gustavus - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 July 1919. Originally with 5th Battalion, Canadian Railway Troops; unit given as No.2 Squadron. Public Record Office Air 1/1841 has recommendation.
For conspicuous efficiency in carrying out important shoots by the ANF and MQNF methods. By this means he has been responsible for the effective neutralization of hostile batteries on numberless occasions. He has also carried out several very valuable night reconnaissances.
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JOHNSON, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Frederick Ross - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 August 1917. Born 1 April 1894 in Morlebank, Ontario; home in Westmount (business manager). Passed tests at Curtiss Flying School, Toronto, 19 July 1916. Appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Ottawa, 19 July 1916; in UK, 27 August 1916; to Cranwell, 11 December 1916; also trained at Crystal Palace, Chingford, Freiston and Manstone (50 hours); to Dunkirk, 4 April 1917; to No.7 (N) Squadron, 9 April 1917, after which he "proceeded on duty", returning to the squadron at Coudekerque on 26 April 1917; also flew in No.15 (N) Squadron. Reported on operations from early July 1917 to December 1917; to Group Pool, 1 July 1918; missing (POW), 3 October 1918; reported prisoner, 14 November 1918; repatriated 17 January 1919. AIR 1/640/17/122/201 (National Archives of Canada MG.40 D.1 Volume 12) indicates he was put up for an MID following a night bombing raid with No.7 (N) Squadron, 12/13 July 1917 (attacking enemy airfields in a Handley-Page). This is confirmed by Public Records Office Air 1/74 (folio 194) in a letter dated 27 July 1917 (Admiralty to Vice-Admiral, Dover Patrol, copy to Commanding Officer, RNAS Dunkirk:
With reference to your submission No.2237/012D of the 16th instant, forwarding reports on bomb attacks on Aertrycke and Houtave-Nieumunster Aerodromes on the 12-13th July, I am commanded by My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to acquaint you that Flight Sub-Lieutenant Frederick R. Johnson and Observer Gunlayer George will be "mentioned" in the Gazette for their good work on this occasion.
JOHNSON, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Frederick Ross - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 17 November 1917. AIR 1/641/17/122/228 (MG.40 D1. Volume 13) has recommendation (but no citation) dated 21 September 1917 appended to report of Handley-Page raid that day; more detailed than before.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in a bombing raid on Thourout Railway Station on the night of the 20th-21st September 1917, when he came down to about 3,000 feet and made particularly good shooting.
Perhaps related to this is a report found in Public Records Office Air 1/74 (folios 232-234) of a raid by ten Handley-Page aircraft on the night of 25/26 September 1917 on stations and junctions of lines of railway triangle, Thourout-Lichtervelde-Cortemarcke, scoring two direct hits on mainline at Thourout and much machine-gunning; targets straddled at Lichtervelde which was hard to find; one direct hit at a junction and three hits on lines as Cortemarcke. Weather was bad, forcing aircraft down to 2,500 to 4,000 feet. Four aircraft made double sorties. Canadians involved were Johnson (Handley-Page 1455) and C.H. Darley (Handley-Page 3129). Report stated:
I beg to call your attention to the conduct of Flight Sub-Lieutenant Gibbs, Observer A.M.I.G.L. Kille, and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Johnson, Observer A.M.I.G.L. Boshier. These pilots and Observers made double trips, and good shooting from 3,000 feet and below, each machine being responsible for dropping over 1 ½ tons of bombs during the night.
Flight Commander Darley, DSC, Observer P.O.G.L. Young, also made extremely good shooting, and was only prevented from completing his second trip by engine trouble.
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JOHNSON, Lieutenant George Owen - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 23 June 1918. Born in Woodstock, Ontario, 24 January 1896; educated there; taught school in Edmonton and other Alberta towns, 1912-1913. Granted commission as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS, 24 April 1917; proceeded to England and transferred to RFC, 27 September 1917. Served in No.84 Squadron, 22 October 1917 to 18 April 1918; in No.24 Squadron, 18 April to 19 June 1918. Served at TDS, Cranwell, No.4 TDS, Hooton (Flight Commander and Instructor) and No.51 TDS, Shotworth (there as of 7 November 1918); No.1 Squadron, CAF, 29 November 1918 to 5 July 1919; officer commanding, War Trophy Party, Canada, 5 July 1919 to 7 January 1920. Joined CAF; participated in Trans-Canada Flight of 1920. Commanded Station Winnipeg (May 1925 to August 1927), attended RAF Staff College, and became Assistant Director of Civil Government Operations. For six months (June to December 1933) he was Acting Senior Air Officer, RCAF. Commanded Station Trenton for two years; attended Imperial Defence College. In March 1938 appointed first Commanding Officer of Western Air Command. Later made Air Member for Organization and Training (October 1939), Deputy Chief of Air Staff (November 1940), AOC No.1 Training Command (July 1942), AOC Eastern Air Command (January 1943), and AOC RCAF Overseas (April 1945 to July 1946). Awarded CB, Canada Gazette dated 5 June 1943. Retired as Air Marshal, 1947. Died in Vancouver, 28 March 1980. See Second World War awards data base.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Observing a large body of the enemy on a road, he descended to a low altitude and dropped four bombs, which exploded amongst them, causing the most severe casualties. He then attacked the enemy with machine-gun fire from a height of 20 feet, causing many more casualties and scattering them in all directions. On a later occasion, he secured four direct hits on a column of horse transport, and diving down to 50 feet, by his persistent attacks held up an enemy advance for a considerable period. He has destroyed two hostile machines, has driven down two others out of control, and has always displayed the greatest courage and coolness in the most difficult situations.
JOHNSON, Lieutenant George Owen - Croix de Guerre avec Etoile en Bronze (France) - awarded 17 July 1918 as per London Gazette dated 29 March 1927. In 1920, Johnson himself could supply no London Gazette authority. His eligibility for this award was subject of RCAF correspondence until April 1927. His service file included a document from French sources:
de l'Ordre du 13 juillet 1918
de Citaions a l'Ordre de l'Aeronautique
No.23 Squadron - Temporary Captain George Owen Johnson, Military Cross, Royal Air Force, General List.
NOTIF: "A rendu des services signales pendant l'offensive allemende de mars a juillet 1918"
Au Q.G.A, le 13 juillet 1918
le Chef de Bataillon
This award was (like Galbraith's) approved by the French during the war but not actually gazetted until a much later date. RCAF Weekly Order dated 23 April 1927 quoting Air Ministry communication of 29 March 1927 gave "unrestricted permission for the wearing of the u/m decoration conferred by the President of the French Republic in recognition of valuable services rendered during the war of 1914-1918 - Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star to Captain (now S/L, RCAF) G.O. Johnson, MC."
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JONES-EVANS, Lieutenant Gordon Sheppard - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Reported as being British or from British Columbia; served with No.4 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, 1 June to 28 July 1918; also flew with No.71 Squadron (dates not known). Living in Montreal, 1921; killed in an air accident, 1937.
On returning from a raid on enemy rolling stock this officer observed an enemy two-seater machine below him; engaging it, the machine dived vertically and crashed. He was then attacked by a second two-seater; into this he fired a very short burst and it also spun down and crashed. In this engagement Lieutenant Jones-Evans was wounded, but though faint from loss of blood, he succeeded in reaching our lines, where he crashed. In the last few weeks he has destroyed three two-seaters and brought down one balloon in flames.
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JOY, Major Douglas Graham - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born 2 November 1888. Home in Toronto; attended University of Toronto; attended Curtiss School in Toronto (ACA Certificate No.1525, 20 July 1915). Appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on Probation) in Canada, 22 July 1915; appointed Flying Officer, 1 December 1915; joined No.32 Squadron as Flight Commander, 3 August 1917; in No.105 Squadron, Northern Ireland, 1918. Appointed Major, 23 April 1917; joined No.21 Squadron, 11 January 1919. Died October 1958.
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JUNOR, Lieutenant Kenneth William - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 13 May 1918. Born 3 August 1894; home in Toronto; educated University of Toronto, 1912-1915. Went overseas with CEF (Canadian Machine Gun Corps) in 1916 and served with a machine gun unit; to RFC at Reading, 24 April 1917; to Hendon, 1 June 1917; to No.65 TS, 21 June 1917; to No.63 TS, 28 July 1917; seconded to RFC and commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant, 28 July 1917; to 56 TS, 15 August 1917; to CFS, 18 August 1917; to No.72 Squadron, 23 September 1917; to No.65 TS, 8 December 1917; may have briefly been in No.70 Squadron, November 1917; served in No.56 Squadron, 15 December 1917 to 23 April 1918 (killed in action).
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in aerial fighting. He destroyed two enemy machines and drove down two others out of control, which crashed on landing. He always showed the greatest courage and resource.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation passed by Headquarters, 3 Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 15 March 1918.
For skill and gallantry.
On 29 January 1918 Lieutenant Junor shot down out of control a hostile scout near Beaurevoir; the nest day he shot down another in flames northwest of Wambaix.
On 27 February 1918 whilst out on a special mission by himself he attacked, and again shot down in flames, a hostile scout over Moeumres, and on 26 February 1918, while on patrol, he sent down out of control another enemy aeroplane near Marquion.
He has, therefore, accounted for four enemy machines, two in flames and two completely out of control and undoubtedly crashed. In all the fights in which he has taken part he has been conspicuously good, and has shown the greatest gallantry and skill.
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KEENS, Captain John Henry - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born 14 December 1896 in Toronto; home there (student); trained atCurtiss Flying School, Toronto; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Ottawa, 1 December 1915; to No.3 (N) Wing, 24 June 1916; to Dunkirk and No.10 (N) Squadron, 23 April 1917; wounded near Ypres, 7 June 1917 (bullet through left lung); to Manston, 14 January 1918; to Redcar, 15 April 1918; to No.29 TS, 19 July 1918; on unemployed list, 11 February 1919. Businessman between the wars who kepy up contacts with RCAF and Toronto Scottish Regiment. Rejoined RCAF, 10 September 1939; engaged on staff and recruiting duties; commanded No.5 Manning Depot (St.Hubert and Valcartier), 1 May 1941 to 11 November 1941. Posted to Technical Training School, St.Thomas and promoted to Wing Commander on being given command. Died in Toronto, 22 August 1948.
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KEIRSTEAD, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Ronald McNeill - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 February 1918. Born 20 June 1895; home in Toronto (student, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph); passed tests at Toronto Curtiss School, 19 July 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Ottawa, 19 July 1916; to RNAS, United Kingdom, 27 August 1916; to Cranwell, 9 April 1917; to Dover, 6 June 1917; in No.204 Squadron, 15 June 1917 to 8 July 1918, when posted to Home Establishment; to No.407 Flight (in the field), 10 January 1919; to unemployed list, 3 April 1919.
In recognition of conspicuous gallantry in aerial combats. On the 24th September 1917, he engaged single-handed four enemy aeroplanes, of which two were destroyed by him. On the 21st October 1917, during an engagement between a British and a German formation, he attacked one of the enemy scouts and shot its port wings away from the rest of the machine. He then dived on to some enemy scouts which were attacking another of our machines and brought one of them down."
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*KENNEY, Captain George Churchill - Distinguished Service Cross (United States) - awarded November 1918. Born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, 6 August 1889; educated at Brookline, Massachusetts and Massachusetts Institite of Technology (civil emgineer, 1911). Employed as civil engineer, Quebec and Saguaenay Railway, 1911-1912; Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, 1913; President, Beaver Contracting and Engineering Corporation, 1914-1917. Enlisted in USAAS, 2 June 1917; Cadet, MIT Ground School, 1917; commissioned 5 November 1917; advanced training at Issoudun, December 1917 to February 1918; at front with 91st Squadron, United Stated Army Air Service, 22 February 1918; in action under French orders, 24 May 10 August 1918, when assigned to American 1st Army; after armistice was part of Army of Occupation (to 16 April 1919). Credited with enemy aircraft destroyed on 15 September and 9 October 1918. Captain, March 1919; returned to United States, 19 July 1919; Border Payrol, 1919-1920; Air Servicve Engineering School, McCook Field, Novemebr 1920 to September 1921. Information in DHist card based on Who's Who in American Aeronautics (1922) and on New England Aviators, 1914-1918 (Boston, 1920), Volume 1, p.202. The latter work givves two citations; the first appears to be for the DSC; the second is for a "citation" (mention in despatches ?}:
First Lieutenant George C. Kenney, Air Service, Pilot, 91st Aero Squadron, distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United States at Jametz, France, on 9 October 1918, and in recognition of his gallant conduct, I have awarded him. in the name of the President, the Distinguished Service Cross. Awarded on 25 November 1918. [signed by Pershing]
First Lieutenant George C. Kenney, Pilot, 91st Aero Squadron, for distinguished and exceptional gallantry at St.Michiel on 15 September 1918, in the operations of the American Expeditionary Forces. In testimony thereof, and as an expression of appreciation of his valour, I award this citation. Awarded on 27 March 1919. [signed by Pershing]
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KENNY, Captain Walter Robert - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born 18 September 1895; home in Ottawa; attended Thomas School, Ithaca, New York, 1915; Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 16 December 1915; at Dundee, 14 September 1916; at Turnberry, 24 April 1918; variously reported as being at No.249 or No.257 Squadron as of 7 November 1918. At Repatriation Camp, 16 April 1919. Post war and Second World War service with RCAF; retired 1942; died 1944. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished service."
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KER, Captain Robert Henry Brakman - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Born in Victoria, 26 March 1895; home there but attended Haileybury College, Hertford, England, September 1908 to December 1913; commissioned in 48th Battalion, CEF; obtained aviation certificate at Farnborough, 22 October 1915; served with No.24 Squadron, 28 December 1915 to 19 July 1916; with No.41 Squadron, 15 October 1916 to 20 February 1917 (flight commander and instructor); No.82 Reserve Squadron, 23 February 1917; to Canada, 4 May 1917; with No.87 CTS, 15 March 1918 to 23 September 1918 when appointed to Headquarters, RAF Canada; Major, 23 September 1918; award for services in Canada.
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KERBY, Flight Lieutenant Harold Spencer - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1917. Born in Hamilton, 14 May 1893; home in Calgary where his father was mayor (mechanical engineer); attended University of Toronto; joined RNAS, February 1915; at Hendon, 21 March 1915; Chingford, 4 May 1915; taken on strength of No.3 (N) Squadron in Dardenelles, 12 June 1915; wounded there, 26 November 1915; Flight Lieutenant, December 1915. To Cranwell, 27 November 1916. To France, December 1916; to Dover Air Station, 19 January 1917; to Dunkirk (No.9 Naval Squadron), 28 January 1917; to No.3 (N) Squadron, 29 March 1917. To AG and FS, Midlands Area, 18 May 1918; to Air Ministry, 20 November 1918; to No.4 Flying School, 20 November 1918 (commanding ?); to BEF, 23 March 1919; to No.4 Flying School, 8 April 1919. Reported once to have thrown his life preserver to a downed German pilot following scrap with eight. Also reported to have taken a brief medical discharge in 1917 before getting back in. Remained in RAF postwar and commanded British Advanced Air Striking Force in France, 1939-1940; also AOC Air Headquarters, East Africa and Coastal Command; retired 1946; died 8 January 1963. Awarded CB, 2 June 1943.
For the great courage and initiative shown by him on many occasions, notably on the 12th August, 1917, when he attacked hostile machines returning from a raid on England. One hostile machine was driven down by him to the water, where it was observed to turn over.
KERBY, Major Harold Spencer - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919.
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KERRUISH, Lieutenant Hubert Bethune - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1918. Born 26 January 1893 in St.Catharines, Ontario; home in Fergus, Ontario (student, University of Toronto). Attended Toronto Curtiss School, late 1915 but no certificate; appointed Probationary Flight Officer, RNAS, Ottawa, 14 December 1916. To RNAS, UK, 14 January 1917; to Calshot, 24 September 1917; to East Fortune, 29 October 1917 (special flying with fleet); with HMS Campania, 7 November 1918; to unemployed list, 23 February 1919. Marine Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War says that on 10 March 1919 on patrol from Campania in a Fairey N1009 he sighted wake of a conning tower eight miles ahead which he investigated. Submarine submerged as he dropped 100-pound bombs from 800 feet; only one exploded.
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KINCAID, Lieutenant Herbert Rae - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Born 19 May 1894; home in Ottawa. Served in 21st Battalion, CEF. To RFC, Reading, 9 July 1917; to No.8 TS, 18 August 1917; to No.1 ASAG, 20 September 1917; to No.83 Squadron, 17 November 1917; to BEF, 20 November 1917; with No.11 Squadron, 21 November 1917 to 17 May 1918 (wounded); graded as Flying Officer (Observer), 8 January 1918; to England, 21 May 1918; to D Squadron, 8 August 1918; to Central Flying School, 7 November 1918; to Southeast Area for Disposal, 21 May 1919. As of February 1919 reported to have flown 260 hours in No.11 Squadron and 120 hours in England.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion he succeeded in completing a very long distance reconnaissance over the enemy's lines under the most difficult conditions, and returned with information of the greatest value. He has performed most proficient work on photographic reconnaissance during the recent operations, the work being carried out on several occasions at very low altitudes.
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KING, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Charles Ley - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918. Home in Sault Ste.Marie, Ontario (electrical engineer). Joined RFC, 1 April 1917; appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 23 July 1917. With No.34 Squadron, 19 September 1917 to 22 November 1918. Reported missing on 27 October 1918 but rejoined unit on 6 November 1918. Remained in RAF after war; London Gazette of 15 March 1929 reported that F/L (now S/L) C.L. King had been Mentioned in Despatches "for distinguished services in operations against the Ikhwan in the southern desert, Iraq, during the period November 1927-May 1928". Awarded Air Force Cross, 1 January 1942 while at No.8 Air Gunner School.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when working with artillery in carrying out thirteen successful shoots, by which numerous enemy gun pits were destroyed and fires and explosions caused. He also carried out two very long reconnaissances, taking excellent photographs and obtaining valuable information.
KING, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Charles Ley - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.
This officer has done excellent work both on reconnaissance duty and in co-operation with our artillery. In the latter service he shows remarkable skill and keen observation. In carrying out a shoot on the 31st August, 848 rounds were fired in five and a half hours, and four pits were destroyed - a fine performance, reflecting great credit on this officer's capability.
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KING, Captain Gordon Alexander - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 July 1918, citation published in London Gazette dated 3 August 1918 (with Lieutenant John Malcolm Glaisher). Home in Oakville, Ontario (glover manufacturer); Accepted as RFC candidate in Canada and sent to UK, sailing from Halifax on 24 January 1917. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant, RFC (on probation), 24 May 1917; served in No.6 Squadron, 3 September to 4 December 1917; in No.35 Squadron, 4 January to 21 February 1918; in No.6 Squadron again, 21 February to 20 December 1918; to Southwest Area, 1 January 1919; to No.43 TDS, 7 May 1919.
While proceeding on a bombing raid last month these officers were attacked from behind by ten enemy scouts. The observer, Lieutenant King, opened fire on their leader, who went down, diving vertically, his machine emitting black clouds of smoke. After some minutes further fighting, the pilot, Lieutenant Glaisher, was able to fire a long burst at another of the enemy scouts, which fell out of control in the same plight as the first-mentioned. They then proceeded on their mission and dropped their bombs successfully. These officers have carried out work of high merit in reconnoitring enemy trenches from low altitudes, regardless of personal risks, displaying a fine spirit of gallantry and determination.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1592 has recommendation submitted by Headquarters, 5 Brigade, Royal Air Force on 5 June 1918 for Military Cross, to be awarded to 2nd Lieutenants John Malcolm Glaisher (pilot) and Gordon Alexander King (observer)
For conspicuous bravery in attacking enemy aircraft, in carrying out Contact Patrol reconnaissances, and in photographing the enemy lines.
On May 25th, 1918, while proceeding on a bombing raid, they were attacked from behind by ten enemy scouts near Becordel. Lieutenant King opened fire on their leader, who went down, diving vertically, emitting clouds of black smoke, being last viewed still diving vertically at about 500 feet from the ground. After some minutes further fighting, Lieutenant Glaisher was able to fire a long burst at another of the enemy scouts. This machine fell completely out of control and was last seen in the same plight as his leader. They then proceeded with the raid and dropped their bombs.
They have both carried out work worthy of high merit in reconnoitring, from very low altitudes, the enemy trenches, and have shown invariably a fine spirit of determination.
This was accompanied by two much long documents which described in detail the work of these two officers. That for King read:
When flying with Lieutenant Glaisher on a bomb raid he was attacked over Becordel by ten enemy aeroplanes who dived on him from all directions out of mist. Lieutenants King and Glaisher however shot down two enemy aeroplanes (one in flames) and did not break off the combat until pilot's ammunition was exhausted.
When on Artillery Observation he was attacked by eight enemy aeroplanes over Zandvoorde and shot one of them down out of control; the same day he went down to 1,000 feet to engage two enemy aeroplanes doing Contact Patrol. He fired three and one-half drums at them and drove them off.
On 26 September 1917, 26 October 1917 and 6 November 1917, this officer carried out successful Contact Patrols in the Begelaere Sector, when the condition of the battlefield rendered the location of our troops very difficult even from a low height. In each case Lieutenant King succeeded in locating accurately our line, and bringing back valuable information.
The work of this officer during the recent bomb raids has been exceptionally good and his devotion to duty and personal courage are worthy of very high praise.
This officer was not recommended for award in conjunction with the King's Birthday Honours Gazette.
The comparative document for Glaisher reads as follows:
[25 May 1918] He crossed the lines on a bomb raid, when mist and clouds rendered conditions very difficult. He was attacked by ten enemy aeroplanes over Becordel. He and his observer (Lieutenant King) shot down two enemy aeroplanes (one in flames) after a few minutes combat, and voluntarily continued the combat with the remainder of the enemy aeroplanes until all the ammunition of his front gun was expended.
[25 September 1917] When on Contact Patrol he was attacked by two enemy aeroplanes over Gheluvelt but drove them off and completed his mission. He has led successfully a number of photographic flights and bombing formations. When on photography on 3 September 1917, the formation was attacked by ten enemy aeroplane scouts over Tenbrielen and in the combat that ensued two enemy aeroplanes were shot down and crashed.
In September and October last he carried out six successful Contact Patrols in the Zandvoorde-Becelaere sector, often flying very low over the hostile trenches under machine gun fire and returning with his machine shot about.
The work of this officer during the recent bomb raids has been exceptionally good and his devotion to duty and personal courage are worthy of very high praise.
This officer was not recommended for award in conjunction with the King's Birthday Honours Gazette.
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KING, 2nd Lieutenant Paul Alan Hastings - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Victoria (medical student); formerly in 13th Field Ambulance, CEF; joined RFC, 13 November 1917; injured in aero accident, 16 July 1918; to No.42 TS, 4 September 1918; to Air Ministry, 26 September 1918; to No.204 Squadron, 29 September 1918 until 29 January 1919. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services during the war." Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation sent up by Headquarters, 2nd Brigade, Royal Air Force.
This officer joined No.204 Squadron on the 29th September 1918, and during the heavy fighting up to 11 November 1918, showed the greatest courage and devotion to duty. He destroyed two enemy machines. He took part in 22 low bombing raids in the Flanders section, bombing and shooting up from 50 feet to 500 feet and his Flight Commander speaks very highly in deed of his exceptional daring in attacking anti-aircraft batteries from low heights, in several cases obtaining direct hits on gun emplacements and causing severe casualties among the crews by his persistent shooting up.
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KINNEAR, 2nd Lieutenant Albert Marlowe - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 4 February 1918; citation published in London Gazette dated 5 July 1918. Born 17 November 1893 at Kinnear's Mills, Quebec; educated in Quebec City (student and bank clerk). Direct RFC entrant in Canada, sailing from Halifax on 24 January 1917; on strength in England, 13 April 1917; with No.8 Squadron, 20 November to 1 December 1917 (wounded); Lieutenant, March 1918; Captain, August 1918. Seems to have returned to No.8 Squadron; to England again 29 July 1918; to Canada on leave, 29 October 1918; to Headquarters, 23 December 1918; demobilized August 1919.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He carried out a successful contact patrol at a low altitude. He was attacked by six enemy machines, his observer wounded and his elevator controls on one side were shot through, but he succeeded in driving off the enemy and returned with very valuable information. On the next day he carried out a contact patrol in very difficult weather at a low altitude and under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire. Though he was wounded in the head and both his petrol tanks shot through he succeeded in bringing his machine back to our lines. He has frequently obtained valuable information in most difficult weather, and has shown the greatest determination and initiative.
NOTE: The Bank of Commerce book, Letters From the Front provides a different citation and also says he was awarded the Air Force Cross "for distinguished and conscientious good work"; not substantiated by cards.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. This officer, on one occasion, while on patrol, was attacked by six enemy aircraft, his elevator controls shot away, and his observer wounded, but he drove them off. The following day he was wounded in the head and both his petrol tanks were shot through, but he brought his machine back. This gallant officer has shown great determination and initiative and on previous occasions has done very valuable work.
Public Record Office Air 1/1515 had the recommendation forwarded by Headquarters, 3 Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps on 5 December 1917.
For skill and gallantry. On November 30th he carried out a successful contact patrol at low altitude owing to clouds. In the course of this flight he was attacked by six enemy aeroplanes, his observer being wounded in the hand and the elevator controls on one side shot through. He succeeded in beating off the enemy aircraft and returned with very valuable information.
On December 1st he carried out a contact patrol in very difficult weather under very heavy rifle and machine gun fire from Banteaux Ravine, at a height of 200 feet. His observer returned the fire with his Lewis gun, but at this point the pilot was hit in the head by a bullet which dazed him, and both petrol tanks were shot through. 2nd Lieutenant Kinnear, however, succeeded in bringing his machine back to our lines and made a forced landing.
This officer has been untiring in his efforts to obtain information by contact patrols, and has brought back valuable reports, in spite of the weather being at times almost impossible for flying.
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KNIGHT, 2nd Lieutenant Arthur Gerald - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 November 1916. Born in Bedford, England, 30 July 1895; educated at Rosedale School and Upper Canada College and University of Toronto (Applied Science, 1913-1915). Possible trained for a time at Curtiss School, Toronto. Applied to RFC in 1915; appointed Flying Officer, 3 February 1916. Served in No.4 Squadron, February to April 1916; in No.24 Squadron, 30 May to 16 November 1916; in No.29 Squadron, 16 November to 20 December 1916 (killed in action, shot down in flames, reportedly after having "brought down his fifth German machine." He was flying a DH.2 and was Manfred von Richthofen's 13th victim.
For conspicuous skill and gallantry. He has shown great pluck in fights with enemy machines, and has accounted for several. On one occasion, when a hostile machine was interfering with a reconnaissance, he attacked at very close range, and brought down the enemy machine in flames.
KNIGHT, 2nd Lieutenant Arthur Gerald - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 December 1916.
For conspicuous gallantry in action. He led four machines against eighteen hostile machines. Choosing a good moment for attack he drove down five of them and dispersed the remainder. He has shown the utmost dash and judgement as a leader of offensive patrols.
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*KNIGHT, Major Henry St.John, FSI - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919; for services in Canada.
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**KNIGHT, 2nd Lieutenant Osbert Richmond - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 17 April 1917. Shown as Royal West Surrey Regiment and RFC. Listed by Dodds. No cards at DHist to establish a Canadian connection.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when attacked by two hostile machines. Although wounded, he succeeded in driving the two machines away, and continued to observe for his battery. Later, he again, drove off an enemy machine and continued his observation.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent from First Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 10 March 1917. Regiment identified as 4th Battalion, The Queens (West Surrey regiment, Territorial Force) and his unit is No.16 Squadron.
For gallantry and devotion to duty.
On 6th March 1917, whilst on Artillery Observation, he was attacked near Neuville St.Vaast by two hostile machines simultaneously. Although slightly wounded in the arm at the outset, he managed to drive the two machines away, and continued to observe for his battery. An hour later he was again attacked at close quarters by a hostile scout. He drove this machine away, and although his own machine was much sot about, he continued his observation until his petrol had run out.
This officer has done excellent work on other occasions.
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KOCH, Lieutenant Alfred - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Home in Edmonton; formerly Lance Corporal, Alberta Dragoons; commissioned 2nd Lieutenant for service with RFC, 3 August 1916; served in No.6 Squadron, 4 August to 22 October 1916 (wounded); given leave in Canada early in 1917; with No.70 Squadron, 6 October 1917 to 27 March 1918 (wounded); to England, 7 April 1918; to No.6 Brigade, No.53 Wing, 17 September 1918; to No.50 Squadron, 7 November 1918. However, a letter he wrote to DHist, 2 October 1971, says that he was an observer with No.1 Squadron, May-June 1916, and served in No.50 (Home Defence) Squadron, 19 September 1918 to 25 February 1919.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. During ten days' operations he carried out eleven reconnaissances at low altitudes. He continually attacked and disorganized enemy troops and transport, and on one occasion he dispersed a battalion of enemy infantry which was marching along a road. On a later occasion, after he had completed a reconnaissance, and bombed an enemy position, he was attacked by an enemy patrol. Though his tanks were pierced and he was wounded, he succeeded in flying his machine back to the aerodrome. He showed splendid courage and initiative.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has the recommendation as sent from Headquarters, 3rd Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force on 8 April 1918:
For continued good service and gallantry during the battle, March 21st to March 31st, 1918.
2nd Lieutenant Koch, during the period mentioned above,fired 4,850 rounds and dropped 32 bombs in the course of eleven patrols. All these patrols were undertaken at very low altitudes, and the salient features of which were as follows:
On 24th March 1918 he did three low flying patrols, during which he reconnoitred the Le Translot-Guedecourt area and brought back much valuable information. he also obtained a direct hit with a bomb on transport near Le Transloy, and disorganized with bombs and machine gun fire transport west of Rocquigny.
On 25th March 1918 this officer again did three patrols. In the morning he dispersed a battalion of infantry, marching in column from Petit Miraumont to Irles. Later in the day he scattered a party of infantry marching west from Bapaume and Avesnes, a second party which he attacked in the same neighbourhood scattered and then ref-formed, on which he attacked them again.
On 26th March 1918 this officer bombed a column of infantry north of Beaumont Hamel, with such success that it broke and turned back.
On 27th March 1918 after this officer had reconnoitred the position, and dropped his bombs round Pozieres, he was attacked by a patrol of Albatross Scouts and Triplanes. His tanks were pierced and he was wounded, but in spite of this, he managed to fly his machine back to his aerodrome.
2nd Lieutenant Koch has up to date driven down six enemy aircraft out of control.
Since joining No.70 Squadron on the 6th October 1917 he has done the most excellent work, and is not only willing to, but actually undertakes, any difficult or dangerous operation. He is now in hospital suffering from a wound which he sustained on 27th March 1918.
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*KULBERG, Lieutenant Harold Albert - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born in Somerville, Masachusetts, 10 September 1896; home there (mechanic); joined RFC in Canada, 7 August 1917 (too short for USAAS at the time) and listed as a Flying Officer on Probation proceeding overseas, 16 December 1917; No.91 TDS, 16 January 1918; No.1 Squadron, 10 May to 16 September 1918 (wounded); to England, 28 September 1918; to No.1 Group, 20 April 1919; proceeding home, June 1919. See New England Aviators, 1914-1918 (Boston, 1920), Volume 2, page 94. See also RAF Communique No.22, describing his destruction of two Fokker biplanes.
This officer has destroyed six enemy aeroplanes and has taken part in seven engagements when others have been destroyed by members of his patrol. A bold and keen officer who possesses a fine fighting spirit.
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*L'HOLLIER, Lieutenant Leslie Howard - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 July 1920. Born in Birmingham, England, 27 December 1889; educated in Britain; toboccao and cigar merchant in New York (1907-1912), Mexico (1912-1914) and Boston (1914-1916). Joined RFC in Canada, November 1916 and trained here; appears to have been retained as instructor; sailed to Britain, 14 August 1918; to Netheravon, 31 August 1918. Pioneer pilot in Handley-Page flights, Britain to Egypt to India; AFC "for services in Egypt". Discharged 3 January 1920; later American rubber merchant.
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LALE, 2nd Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Horace Percy - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Born in Nottingham, England; mother in Brighton; in England until at least 1913 where he served with Royal Bucks Hussars (Yeomanry), 1902-1911; joined 12th Canadian Mounted Rifles in Calgary, 5 January 1915; overseas 10 September 1915. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation), RFC, 26 September 1916. With No.48 Squadron, 7 April to 29 November 1917. In September 1918 flew with 2nd Lieutenant H.L. Edwards as his observer, No.20 Squadron. Posted to Headquarters, No.2 Indian Wing after the Armistice and awarded Bar to DFC, 12 July 1920 for services in Waziristan; later awarded DSO for "personal gallantry and administrative efficiency" in the same theatre, spring 1920. Returned to Home Establishment in 1921 and posted to School of Technical Training (Men), Manston; promoted Squadron Leader in 1923 and posted to No.24 (Communications) Squadron. Appointed to Command No.32 Squadron, April 1924; appointed to Headquarters, Fighting Area, Uxbridge, August 1926; appointed to command No.32 (Bombing) Squadron in Iraq, 2 December 1927. Left RAF as Group Captain, 1 January 1936, but returned on 3 March 1941, first as Duty Officer, Director of Air/Sea Rescue Services and then as Duty Group Captain, Air Ministry War Room.
A bold and courageous officer who leads his patrol with marked skill and judgement. He has accounted for twelve enemy aeroplanes - five crashed, four shot down in flames, and three driven down out of control. On September 6th he led his patrol of nine machines to the assistance of some formations that were attacked by 30 or 40 enemy aircraft; in the engagement he and his observer accounted for two Fokkers. Eventually the enemy was driven off, five of their machines being destroyed and three shot down out of control.
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LALLY, Captain Conrad Tollendal - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 January 1918; citation in London Gazette dated 25 April 1918. Home in Wainwright, Alberta; attended Curtiss School, Toronto, late 1915 (may not have done more than get on list of military candidates); appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation), RFC in Canada, 1 January 1916. On RFC strength in England, 13 January 1916. With No.25 Squadron, 11 April 1917 to 18 December 1917 (wounded 8 December 1917); to Home Establishment, 10 January 1918; injured in aeroplane accident, 13 September 1918; hospitalized at Catterick; to British Expeditionary Force as Flight Commander, 22 March 1919.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in many bomb raids and photographic and long-distance reconnaissances, many of which he has led most successfully. He has taken part in numerous combats and has destroyed three hostile positions. When ordered to bomb a position he spent one and one-half hours looking for it, then returned for more petrol and at the second attempt dropped a bomb on it, and with another set a dump on fire, under most difficult weather conditions.
LALLY, Captain Conrad Tollendal - Bar to Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 4 February 1918. Citation published in London Gazette dated 2 July 1918.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Flying over and above the clouds, he released his bombs over his objective, well behind the enemy lines, at a height of 500 feet, under heavy fire. On two later occasions he carried out photographic reconnaissances of hostile aerodromes under very bad weather conditions, on account of which several other machines had to give up the jorney. He has shown himself to be a most determined and successful leader; his example of courage and skill being of great advantage to his squadron.
LALLY, Captain Conrad Tollendal - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.
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*LAMBERT, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) William Carpenter - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 4 July 1918; citation in issue dated 3 August 1918. Born in Ironton, Ohio, 18 August 1994; home there (chemist and factory supervisor, working in Nobel Plant, Canadian Explosives Limited, Montreal, 1914-1916.); enlisted in RFC in Toronto in spring of 1917, training in Canada at Long Branch, Camp Borden, Camp Mohawk and Camp Rathbone. Sailed from Canada, 19 November 1917. No.24 Squadron, 20 March to 20 August 1918 (hospitalized); wrote memoirs.
He has destroyed six enemy machines and driven down four others out of control, displaying at all times dash and determination. On one occasion when attacked by two Fokker biplanes, he drove down one, engaged the other at twenty yards range, and crashed it to earth.
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LANDRY, Captain (Acting Major) Pierre Alfred - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Described as "Canadian Infantry" and also listed in Flight, 12 June 1919. DHist cards citing Jackson Papers state he was a civil engineer inn Victoria, British Columbia; commissioned in a Victoria militia unit in November 1914; overseas with CEF, July 1915; attached to RFC, 13 October 1916 (No.4 Squadron, 27 October 1916 to 25 May 1917); Adjutant of unspecified unit, 25 May to 5 September 1917; to School of Technical Training, 17 September 1917 (Acting Adjutant); Acting Major and staff officer, Air Ministry, 6 May 1918. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguiushed services rendered during the war.
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LANDRY, Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Wilfred Andrew - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919; for services in Canada. Born 10 November 1888. Home in Dorchester, New Brunswick (electrical engineer); overseas with Canadian Field Artillery, August 1915; to France, January 1916; served in No.42 Squadron, 28 August 1916 to 15 February 1917 (wounded); appointed Flying Officer (Observer), 30 August 1916; as of 18 July with No.75 (Home Defence) Squadron; to Canada, 25 September 1917; with No.89 CTS; considered as detached to RFC/RAF, 11 October 1916 to 20 December 1918. For attack on enemy kite balloon see documents Air 1/1222/204/5/2634/42.
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LANGMUIR, Lieutenant John William - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Toronto (student) and formerly in Machine Gun Brigade. Obtained Royal Aero Club Certificate No.2440, 8 February 1916; appointed Flying Officer, RFC, 21 April 1916; served in No.4 Squadron, 12 May to 2 September 1916 (hospitalized). To Canada, 1 July 1918 as Adjutant, Headquarters, Toronto. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".
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LAUGHLIN, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Frederick Andrew - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Home in Thorold, Ontario; appointed Flying Officer, 17 June 1917; sailed from Canada as 2nd Lieutenant, RFC, 19 November 1917; to No.106 Squadron, 15 December 1917; to No.99 Squadron, circa 26 December 1917; with No.98 Squadron, 26 May to 27 June 1918 (hospitalized); to No.14 TDS, 13 November 1918; to No.12 TDS, 11 April 1919. NOTE: raid cited was 17 June 1918 (target, Cambrai) by three DH.9s.
While bombing an important railway station the formation, of which this officer was leader, was attacked by about twenty enemy scouts. In the engagement that ensued two enemy aeroplanes were destroyed and a third driven down out of control. These results were largely due to his excellent leadership. He has taken part in forty bomb raids, the objective of many being far over the enemy lines. His knowledge of navigation and skill as a leader have been invaluable in enabling the formation to reach the objective.
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LAWSON, Captain Walter Brogdin - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Born 11 November 1892; home in Barrie, Ontario (civil engineer); Royal Military College, 1913; went overseas with 48th Highlanders in First Canadian Contingent; taken on strength of RNAS, 31 May 1915; to HMS Excellent, 13 June 1915; foreign service, 16 September 1915; Persian Gulf, 2 October 1915; to HMS Alert, 7 April 1916; to Yarmouth, 14 July 1916; to Calshot, 27 July 1916; to Eastchurch (instructor), 11 September 1916; to Manston ("B" Naval Squadron), 15 October 1917; to No.1 SNBD [?], 18 March 1918; with No.215 Squadron, 6 June (or 4 July) to 3 November 1918; to No.123 Squadron, 26 November 1918. Killed in a flying accdent, 16 June 1928 at "Aviation Field, Winnipeg"; as a mining engineer he had decided to secure a private pilots license and crashed in a Moth while taking a Western Canada Airways refresher course. No published citation. Public Record Office Air 1/1650 has the following text, forwarded from Headquarters, 8th Brigade, Royal Air Force on 16 November 1918; second name spelled "Brogden" in document and London Gazette.
This pilot has carried out 22 night bombing raids. He has consistently bombed and machine gunned his objectives at low altitudes with distinct effect, showing great courage and determination, thereby setting a fine example to the young pilots of this squadron.
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LAYARD, Major Arthur Raymond - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Born in Isle of Wight, England, 2 September 1888; attended Naval Academy, Gosport, 1902-04 and held Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from City Guilds of London; apprentice at shipyards, Cowes, for two years before moving to Canada; living in Ganges, British Columbia when he married, June 1914. Proceeded to England with wife and child to enlist, 1915. Appointed Lieutenant, RNVR, 6 August 1915. Locations at various times were: President, for Air Service, 18 September 1915; Kingsnorth Airship Station (employed on airship construction), 18 December 1915; Pembroke Airship Station (engineer on gas, power, transport, airships buildings), 18 March 1916 through to 18 December 1916; No.6 Wing, RNAS, 18 March 1917 through to early 1918; Adriatic Group, RAF, 18 June through October 1918; with No.66 Wing, RAF, 18 December 1918. Officer Comanding, Adriatic Group Depot, 1918-1919. Claimed 100 hours on SS and coastal airships while engineering officer and testing. Served in RCAF as an aeronautical engineer, 1940-1945, rising to Group Captain and commanding No.6 Repair Depot, Trenton, 1944. Died in Ganges, British Columbia, 5 April 1967. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".
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LAYTON, 2nd Lieutenant John Gregory Graham - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 6 September 1918 (as reported in Letters From the Front). Born 5 June 1899 in London, England; enlisted in Canadian Field Artillery, 26 April 1917; to RFC, 19 November 1917; 2nd Lieutenant, 6 April 1918, serving on west of coast of Scotland on anti-submarine patrols. Reported to have spotted a submarine which was then attacked and sunk by trawlers. NOTE: Search of London Gazettes has not confirmed this award.
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LEACH, Captain (Temporary Major) John Owen - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Home in Toronto; went overseas as a gunner, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, 1st Contingent; to Imperial Army (11th Middlesex), 11 December 1914; awarded Military Cross in 1915; to RFC, 15 May 1916; Royal Aero Club Certificate No.3900, 4 December 1916; graded as Flying Officer (2nd Lieutenant), 8 July 1916; served in No.56 Squadron, 25 March to 7 May 1917 (wounded); leave to Canada; Captain, 4 June 1917; served in No.90 CTS (23 September 1918); to BEF, 3 January 1919. Seconded to CAF, 1 April 1919, serving in No.123 Squadron. Postwar OPAS, with which he was killed in 1930 trying to loop an aircraft.
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*LEAKE, Lieutenant Eric Gilbert - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 24 June 1917. Private in 1st Contingent, CEF; wounded in France, 27 April 1915; appointed Lieutenant, Manchester Regiment, 26 October 1915; appointed Flying Officer, RFC as 2nd Lieutenant, 5 May 1917. Served with No.59 Squadron. Directorate of History and Heritage cards say he was wounded 14 May 1917; wounded again 18 June 1917; died of wounds, 1 July 1917. This information - at least so far as his death - is clearly incorrect. Commonwealth War Graves Commission records state that he was "a native of Manchester", that his parents were living in Cheshire, and that his original unit was the 7th Battalion, Manchester Regiment; it is evident that his Canadian association must have been very brief.
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion, observing a hostile scout, he at once attacked and fire 1,000 rounds at close range. The hostile machine went down in a steep glide and crashed to earth. Later, when on contact patrol, his machine was damaged and forced to land just behind our lines. Although under heavy shell fire he, assisted by another officer, succeeded in salving all the instruments and equipment on the machine before destroying it. He has set a very high example of courage and devotion to duty throughout the operations.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has the recommendation as sent from Headquarters, 3rd Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps on 31 March 1918.
This officer, together with Lieutenant Upfill, his observer, have during the recent operations done most excellent work. They have obtained most valuable information, flying at low altitudes under heavy fire, and on most occasions in spite of attacks by enemy aeroplanes.
On March 26th, when on their way to the lines, they saw a hostile scout. They at once attacked this machine and Lieutenant Upfill fired 100 rounds at close range. The enemy aeroplane went down in a steep glide and crashed just south of Serre, apparently catching fire.
On March 28th, 1918 when on contact patrol and flying at 500 feet under very heavy rifle and machine gun fire, their machine was damaged and forced to land at Colincamp just behind our lines. Although under heavy shell fire, these officers salvaged all their wireless instruments and guns, and burnt their machine, and then returned to report.
This officer has shown the greatest courage and devotion to duty, and has set a very high example during the recent operations.
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LECKIE, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Robert - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1917. Born 16 April 1890 in Scotland; migrated to Canada; home in Toronto (commercial traveller); attended Curtiss School, 1915; no certificate; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Ottawa, 6 December 1915; confirmed in rank, 16 June 1916 with seniority from 6 December 1915; to Flight Lieutenant, 30 June 1917; to Flight Commander, 1 January 1918; to Major, 8 August 1918. To Chingford, 6 December 1915; to Felixstowe, 19 June 1916; to Yarmouth, 4 September 1916; to Southeast Area, No.4 Group, 8 August 1918. Document Air 1/416/15/243/5 Part III reported that since May 1917 he had done 18 flights to north of Holland (85 hours), been in action with Zeppelins eight times, been in action with seaplanes twice, been shelled by enemy warships four times, rescued crew of a DH.4 (5 September 1917); see B.V. Cousens, "A Pigeon and a Prayer", Aeroplane Monthly, October 1974) and sank a submarine (20 February 1918). Was involved in destruction of L-22, 14 May 1917. Returned to Canada and directed civilian flying operations under the Air Board; planned and initiated the Trans-Canada Flight of 1920. Returned to Britain in May 1922 where he was posted to the staff of No.1 School of Technical Training (Boys) at Halton. In September 1922 he went to Royal Naval Staff College for a course. Posted to Headquarters, Coastal Area, July 1923. Appointed to command the RAF unit aboard HMS Hermes (March 1926); appointed to HMS Courageous in rank of Wing Commander, 26 August 1927. As of September 1932 he was Commanding Officer, No.210 (Flying Boat) Squadron when it undertook a “cruise” of Baltic ports with three aircraft. Appointed RAF Director of Training in 1935; in 1938 made AOC Mediterranean, with headquarters at Malta. Loaned to RCAF as an Air Commodore, 1940, to assist establishing BCATP. Appointed to Air Council in November 1940; promoted to Air Vice-Marshal, 1942; transferred to RCAF, 1943. Chief of Air Staff, 1 January 1944 to 1 September 1947. Awarded CB (28 May 1943); Grand Officers Cross of Polonia Restituta, Poland (1 May 1945); Commander, Legion of Merit, United States (18 June 1946); King Haakron VII's Cross of Liberation, Norway (12 July 1948); Honourary Mexican Pilot's Wings (14 September 1946); Commander of the Legion of Honour, France (20 September 1947), Order of the White Lion, Class II, Czechoslovakia (5 October 1946); Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown, Belgium (17 July 1948). Devoted much time to Air Cadet movement following retirement. Queen's Coronation Medal, 23 October 1953 (retired); died in Ottawa, 31 March 1975.
In recognition of his services on the night of 3rd/4th May 1917, when he dropped two bombs on Ostend Seaplane Base with good results, making two trips.
LECKIE, Flight Commander Robert - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 17 May 1918.
For services in action with enemy submarines.
NOTE: Public Record Office ADM 116/1560 has recommendation dated 8 January 1918 from Yarmouth suggesting "Mention or Bar to DSC". The form gives a brief summary:
Pilot of H.12 on five occasions in which Zeppelins have been attacked in Zone Terschelling-Borkum Riff. Pilot of H.12 on September 5th, 1917 when crew of DH.4 were picked up near Swarle Banll [place name is a guess owing to penmanship].
This was accompanied by a typed summary of the above:
Flight Commander Robert Leckie, DSC, RNAS, has been a pilot of an H.12 seaplane on five flights; on each occasion Zeppelins were engaged in the Zone Terschelling-Borkhum Riff. He was in the H.12 on September 5th when the crew of the DH.4 were picked up.
This refers to a recommendation made at the same time for Squadron Commander Vincent Nicholl (awarded DSO, 1 May 1918) which read, in part:
On September 5th, 1917 when in command of a Special Flight made by a "H.12" and a "D.H.4", the "D.H.4" had to descend in the sea owing to engine failure; the "H.12" alighted and picked up the crew of the "D.H.4"; owing to the rough sea the "H.12" was unable to again ascend and was adrift for three and one-half days. Squadron Commander Nicholl displayed great courage and determination and animated by the splendid example set by him the crew were enabled to keep the seaplane afloat during strong wind and heavy seas until picked up by HMS Halcyon.
LECKIE, Captain Robert - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918.
Captain Robert Leckie with two other officers, attacked and destroyed a large enemy airship, which recently attempted a raid on the northeast coast, and also succeeded in damaging a second airship. The services rendered on this occasion were of the greatest value, and the personal risk was very considerable for aeroplanes a long way out from land.
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LEESON, David, Captain - Mentioned for Valuable Services in Captivity - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 December 1918 Born in Dublin, 9 April 1886; enlisted Irish Fusiliers, Vancouver, August 1914; sailed with First Contingent (7th Battalion), October 1914; to France, 10 February 1915; commissioned 30 April 1915; attached to No.16 Squadron, 9 May 1915 (observer); shot down and taken prisoner, 10 October 1915; arrived in Holland for internment, 18 April 1918; repatriated 16/17 November 1918. Lived in Antwerp after the war. Award one of many "for gallantry while Prisoners of War in escaping or attempting to escape from captivity, or for valuable services rendered in the Prison Camps of the enemy."
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**LeGALLAIS, Captain Philip Edmond Mark - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Although he has appeared on some lists of Canadians decorated in flying services, records at the Director General, History (Canadian Forces Headquarters) state that no Canadian association has been established. Public Records Office Air 76 file states he was born 13 September 1893 and gives his mother's address as Jersey; previous service with Royal Sussex Regiment.
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LEITCH, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Alfred Alexander - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918. With No.1 ASD, 27 December 1917; No.43 Squadron, 28 December 1917 to 3 January 1918; No.65 Squadron, 3 January to 4 September 1918; joined HMS Argus, 20 May 1919 and carried out experimental deck trials; to Russia, arriving Archangel 30 July 1919; crashed next day and repatriated to England. Featured in Photographing Canada from Flying Canoes by S. Bernard Shaw (General Store Publishing, Burnstown, Ontario, 2001).
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty while on fighting patrols. During recent operations he displayed great courage and determination in attacking superior forces of enemy aircraft, and in engaging with machine gun fire enemy troops and transport on the ground. He did splendid work and set a most inspiring example.
LEITCH, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Alfred Alexander - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.
This officer has already been awarded the Military Cross for gallant service. His devotion to duty and consistent courage is an inspiring example to all. During the recent operations he heavily bombed an enemy dump, causing several fires; he then attacked hostile troops in the vicinity. Frequently he has returned to our lines with his machine riddled with bullets.
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LELIEVRE, Lieutenant Roger Horace - Croix de Guerre - date and authority uncertain. Home in Ottawa; with Royal 22e Regiment,1914-1916 (wounded); called back to Canada as signals officer, 230th Battalion. To England in February 1917; To RFC as Observer, 15 February 1917; served with No.34 Squadron, 6 April to 21 August 1917; with No.52 Squadron, 21 August to 28 November 1917; to England, 18 June 1918; killed in air accident, 31 August 1918. Details are few; he was advised of this award while with RFC but it may have been for services with Royal 22e Regiment. This officer's award and name appears in a National Archives list of Canadians decorated for services in the RFC/RNAS/RAF (RG.9 III C-14 Vol.4608).
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LE ROYER, Captain Joseph Achille - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 July 1917. Born 28 January 1890; home in Quebec City (civil engineer, working in Toronto); formerly 163rd Battalion, CEF; joined RFC, 15 February 1917 when he went to No.1 School of Aeronautics; to Hythe, 2 March 1917; served in No.11 Squadron, 26 March to 5 July 1917 (wounded) and again 9-16 August 1917 when sent to England; to Reading, 11 November 1917; to No.200 Depot Squadron, 17 December 1917; to No.199 (N) TS, 8 March 1918 (pilot); to No.33 Squadron, 11 March 1918; served in No.102 Squadron, 10 May to 5 September 1918; to Canadian Headquarters, London, 9 September 1918; relinquished commission, 9 September 1918; with Air Board and CAF; assisted Americans on flight to Alaska; killed in flying accident, Camp Borden, 1921; buried in Ottawa's Notre Dame Cemetery. Reputed (with some exaggeration) to have shot down six German machines as an observer, three in the same day. "Captain Le Royer was patrolling when he and his pilot saw three German machines attack one British aeroplane. They engaged the enemy craft, chasing one away, and shortly afterward another crashed to earth in flames. In a few minutes, however, they were attacked by three other German machines. Two of the foe were engaged immediately, but Captain Le Royer's machine had been in action only a few minutes when the forward gun became blocked. The pilot took a side slip, losing in height, so as to allow the captain the use of the back gun, and shortly afterwards one of the German planes was seen in distress. The pilot manoeuvred to prevent the enemy from diving under the British machine, and Captain Le Royer using the back gun shot down a second machine. The battle continued until finally a third Hun plane crashed to earth."
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has constantly shown great skill and courage when acting as observer. His accurate shooting and coolness under fire have largely contributed to his successful aerial combats against superior numbers.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation as it went from 3 Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 2 May 1917:
For skill and gallantry. On the 27th April 1917, while on patrol, he attacked three scouts, who were attacking a Sopwith, in an FE with 2nd Lieutenant Kennedy as pilot. These were dispersed, one hostile aeroplane being shot down in flames near Izel-les-Epuerchin, and another driven down. A second formation, of four, which attacked the FE, was also dispersed, one being shot down and seen to crash near Vitry.
Previously, on the 14th April 1917, he drove a hostile scout down out of control.
His accurate and quick shooting was responsible to a large degree for these successes and he has shown, on numerous occasions, coolness and skill in engaging hostile aeroplanes.
RCAF file 1021-3-28, "Avro 504K - H.9744 - G-CYBD" has the report of the accident on 1 April 1921. After instruction from F/L A.L. Cuffe, he was sent solo. Le Royer had been airborne for half an hour and made two good landings. A witness then stated that he stalled in a right hand turn, spun through two turns (200 feet) and hit the ground. He suffered internal injuries, the gravity of which were not recognized until 5 April 1921. when he died in hospital. His flying experience was summarized as follows: DH.1 (two hours), DH.6 (12 hours), FE.2b (108 hours), Bristol Fighter (82 hours) and Avro (one hour 45 minutes). This appears to be his time as a pilot, not as observer.
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LESLIE, Sergeant A. (2021) - Meritorious Service Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 November 1917. Described as from Bucksburn, New Brunswick. No card at DHist can be squared with this man.
In recognition of valuable services renderd with the Armies in the field in the present war.
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LESLIE, Captain William Alexander - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Born 19 September 1896. Home in Toronto (druggist); accepted for RFC in Canada and sailed from Saint John on SS Missanabie, 8 December 1916; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation), 19 December 1916; confirmed in rank, 23 June 1917; Lieutenant, 1 April 1918; Captain, 24 June 1918. Served with No.28 Squadron, 17 April to 10 October 1917; No.36 (Home Defence) Squadron, 10 October to 20 December 1917; No.58 Squadron, 21 December 1917 to 5 October 1918 (wounded).
This officer has carried out 63 successful night bomb raids and nine successful night reconnaissances. On seven occasions he has carried out three raids in one night. Frequently, owing to adverse weather conditions, he has only succeeded in reaching his objecting by the exercise of great determination and skill. However severe the hostile fire may be, Captain Leslie never hesitates to descend to low altitudes in order to make certain of hitting his objective.
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LEWIS, Lieutenant Arthur Tudor - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 July 1919. Born 9 February 1892. Home in Halifax (civil engineer); from CEF to RFC, 11 October 1917; with No.10 Aerodrome Service Unit, 14 October 1918 to 26 April 1919; with 2nd Brigade, 24 April to 28 May 1919. For servics with Aerodrome Service Unit.
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LIBBY, 2nd Lieutenant Frederick - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 November 1916. American; born in Sterling, Colorado, 15 July 1892; educated St.Louis, Missouri; served in Canadian Ordnance Corps, CEF; attached to No.23 Squadron, June 1916; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation) with RFC, 4 August 1916 (had been a Private); with No.11 Squadron, 4 August to 8 November 1916; appointed Flying Officer (Observer), 26 September 1916 while with No.11 Squadron, Le Hameau; to UK for pilot training, 8 November 1916. At School of Military Aeronautics, Reading, from 14 December 1916 onwards; with No.48 RS as of 16 February 1917; with No.45 RS, Narborough as of 11 March 1917; with No.81 RS, Scampton, 7 April 1917; with No.43 Squadron, Auchel, France, 18 April 1917 (Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutters); appointed Flight Commander, 26 July 1917; to Home Establishment to assist with American flying forces; briefly with No.44 (HD) Squadron, Hainault Farm and then No.35 TS. Joined American forces, 24 September 1917 (Captain).
For conspicuous gallantry in action. As observer he, with his pilot, attacked four hostile machines and shot one down. He has previously shot down four enemy machines.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has the text of the recommendation sent from Headquarters, 3 Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps on 10 October 1916.
Skill and gallantry. On the 10th October 1916 near Bapaume, 2nd Lieutenant Libby was observer to Lieutenant Harvey if an FE on an offensive patrol. At about 4.00 p.m., seeing four hostile scouts attacking four British machines, the FE attacked, 2nd Lieutenant Libby emptied half a drum into a hostile machine which fell out of control. 2nd Lieutenant Libby has always shown great skill and determination in air combats, having previously shot down four hostile machines which were either seen to be wrecked on striking the ground or to have fallen out of control. he has also done excellent photographic reconnaissance work.
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LIGHTHALL, 2nd Lieutenant William Schuyler - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Westmount (student); appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 14 October 1917; to England, 2 November 1918. Award not shown on his cards; appears in Dodds lists; confirmed by London Gazette which nevertheless identifies his unit as Dorset Regiment and states the award was for services in Palestine. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".
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LINDSAY, Captain Lionel Lodge - Order of St.Stanislas - no authority or confirmation; claimed when he joined Canadian Army in 1940. Born 20 January 1892 in Calgary; home there; law student at University of Toronto. Attended Curtiss Flying School and obtain Royal Aero Club Certificate No.4061 dated 19 December 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Canada that date; to UK, 11 February 1917; to Dover, 11 June 1917; to Dunkirk (No.12 Squadron), 18 June 1917; as of 18 September 1917 he was with No.4 Wing; on 18 December 1917 to Isle of Grain (seaplane base). Served in South Russia with No.47 Squadron. Died in Ottawa 3 March 1957.
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LLOYD-LOTT, Captain Robert Elgin - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Next of kin (sister) in Orillia; commissioned in Sarnia Militia, January 1916; joined RFC, 23 April 1917 to train as pilot; engineering skills noted and he was removed from pilot training and assigned to Air Ministry; loaned to Italy; returning to England, June 1918; worked with Air Board on experments; to Overseas Military Forces of Canada, 16 September 1918 to assist in formation of Canadian Air Force. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".
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LOBB, 2nd Lieutenant Harry Lee - Mentioned for Valuable Services - award effective 22 January 1919. Home in Beatty, Saskatchewan (locomotive engineer); with No.10 TDS, 8 September 1918. No details.
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LOFFT, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Alfred Hartley - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 August 1917. Born 27 January, 1895 at St.Mary's, Ontario; home there; passed tests at Curtiss School, Toronto, 1916 and obtained Royal Aero Club Certificate No.3390 dated 9 August 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, 7 November 1916; in UK with RNAS, 3 December 1916; trained at Vendome, Westgate and Manston. Mentioned in despatches for fighting bombers that had raided London, going as far as Walcheren Island (7 July 1917); see AIR 1/646/17/122/360 in MG.40 D.1 Volume 13; became unfit (ulcers) and appointment terminated, 16 January 1918.
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*LONGMAN, 2nd Lieutenant Tremper - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919; for services in Canada. Home in Brooklyn, New Jersey (bond salesman); appoined 2nd Lieutenant with RFC, Canada, 7 November 1917; instructed with RFC/RAF Canada, including time in Texas, February 1918. Flew pioneer air mail, Leaside to Rockcliffe, 15 August 1918, returning 17 August 1918.
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*LORD, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Frederick Ives - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. American; born in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, 1900; joined U.S. Army at age 16 and served with 3rd Texas Infantry until true age discovered and he was discharged. With a "doctored" birth certificate, joined RFC Canada; overseas 1 October 1917 or 29 October 1917; with No.79 Squadron, 21 March to 19 November 1918 (sick); to No.4 TDS, 6 January 1919; served in Russia, 1919 at RAF Pinega [?]. Shown as sailing from UK to America, 29 October 1919. In 1928 was combat advisor to Mexican government; later a Major, U.S. Army Air Corps; in 1936-37 flew combat missions in Spanish Civil War. On outbreak of Second World War, using another "doctored" certificate, he got into RAF and as far as No.79 Squadron before discovery; posted to ATA to ferry bombers. Although Dolphins had two Vickers machine guns and two swivelled Lewis guns he, like many others, considered one Lewis a hazard and removed one. See Cross and Cockade, Summer 1964.
A gallant officer, bold in attack and skilful in manoeuvre. On the 27th June he, single-handed, attacked and destroyed a Fokker biplane. On his return journey he observed one of our formations engaged with a number of Pfalz scouts; joining in the combat he shot down one which crashed.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation send by Headquarters, Second Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 23 August 1918.
On the 28 May 1918, when on offensive patrol, Captain Lord saw an enemy balloon near Comines which he succeeded in shooting down.
On the 7 June 1918 when engaged on a similar duty, Captain Lord engaged an Albatross Scout and destroyed it, the machine falling near La Basse Ville.
On the 27 June 1918 when out by himself near Armentieres, he encountered and destroyed a Fokker triplane near Neuve Eglise. On his way back he joined an English formation, which was attacking some Pfalz Scouts. Captain Lord shot down one, which crashed on the road between Neuve Eglise and Ploegsteert Wood.
On the 21 August 1919 when on offensive patrol northwest of Armentieres, Captain Lord shot down a two-seater which fell into a clump of trees.
*LORD, Flight Lieutenant Frederick Ives - Bar to Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 November 1919.
On June 27, 1919, whilst piloting an RE-8 machine, he found the position of the enemy on the Pinega River, four versts from Pilegori, and attacked the moving columns from a height of 200 feet with such effect that their transport was stampeded and their expected attack broke down, without any casualties being sustained by our forces.
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LORIMER, Lieutenant John - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Described as being with Independent Force and being Canadian Infantry. Born 28 February 1896; home in Ireland (banker); from 19th Reserve Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force to RFC, 6 August 1917; trained at Reading; to No.75 Squadron, 28 November 1917; to STB, 29 January 1918; to No.16 Training Squadron, 3 February 1918; to No.1 SNBD [?], 15 April 1918; to No.207 Squadron, 1 June 1918; to British Expeditionary Force, France, 5 June 1918; to Southwest Area, 21 June 1918; to No.215 Squadron, 2 July 1918 (serving until 11 January 1919). Public Record Office Air 1/1650 has recommended citation submitted on 16 November 1918.
Has participated in 15 night bombing raids with great success. he has shown great courage and determination in all his work.
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LOUGH, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Eber Taylor - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 July 1919. Born 28 February 1891; home in Winnipeg; served in 43rd Battalion, CEF, and awarded Military Medal; to RFC, Reading, 3 July 1917; to No.49 Training Squadron, 14 August 1917; to No.60 Training Squadron, 18 September 1917; to No.192 Depot, 22 December 1917; served in No.148 Squadron, 20 April 1918 to 6 February 1919. Public Record Office Air 1/1476/204/36/113 has recommendation dated 14 January 1919 for a DFC with his observer, 2nd Lieutenant T. Sydenham:
These officers, flying together as pilot and observer, have carried out 52 bomb raids and ten reconnaissances. On the night of May 28th/29th, whilst on a raid on Hellemmes Station, they were overtaken by rain and low clouds but continued to their objective and came down very low over Lille in an endeavour to find their target. This they eventually found by means of a parachute flare and they obtained good results with their bombs in spite of intense machine gun fire from the ground. On the return journey, owing to the clouds being at a height of 300 feet, they lost the aerodrome, and after flying about for an hour and a half in rain they were forced to land at Montreuil. On another night, May 20th/21st, whilst attacking Rembeke aerodrome, this pilot and observer again came down to a low height and obtained direct hits on the hangars, which was later confirmed by photographs.
They have never been daunted by weather conditions and have always shown a very offensive spirit.
NOTE: The Commanding Officer of No.148 Squadron noted that Lough (and others) had been recommended on two previous occasions for awards without result. He went on:
I should like to point out that this squadron has received very poor recognition for the work it has carried out, only two awards having been made for good work - Captain G.M. Harrison the Distinguished Flying Cross and Sergeant J.H. Matthews the Distinguished Flying Meal. This I ascribe in a large measure to the fact that the squadron was not working with a Night Flying Wing and was overshadowed by the more spectacular work of the scouts and other Day Flying Squadrons. In comparison with the awards given to day flying Squadrons I consider night flying Squadrons have received very poor recognition, excepting of course those working directly under Night Flying Wings.
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LUMSDEN, Lieutenant Gordon Keith - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 13 March 1918. Born 16 November 1892; home in Orillia; served in Canadian Expeditionary Force; joined RFC, 14 December 1916 and posted to 7 Reserve Squadron; to No.40 Reserve Squadron, 21 April 1917; to AEO [?], 21 May 1917; to Hendon (date not givven); to Norwich, No.3 Aircraft Acceeptance Park, 10 August 1917; to "C" Wing, 25 September 1918; struck off strength, 21 February 1919. NOTE: DHist cards notwithstanding, search of London Gazette has not confirmed this award. Further search for an authority in progress.
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LUSSIER, Lieutenant Emile John - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born in Chicago, 10 October 1895; home in Medicine Hat, Alberta (farmer on card but other sources say his father was a railway contractor); appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 27 November 1917; with RFC in UK, 7 January 1918; with No.73 Squadron, 24 March to 29 December 1918; to England, 1 January 1919 and hospitalized. Captain as of 23 October 1918.
During recent operations this officer has driven down out of control or destroyed seven enemy machines, and with the aid of two other pilots, has accounted for a further two. Three of these he destroyed in one day. In these combats he has proved himself an officer of very high courage, eager to attack without regard to the enemy's superiority in numbers.
NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has original recommendation sent on 3 September 1918 from Headquarters, 1st Brigade, Royal Air Force to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, which provides much more detail:
For the conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty with which he has carried out offensive and low flying patrols. On all occasions he has shown absolute fearlessness and has engaged the enemy, often in superior numbers, on every possible occasion. He has always supported his patrol leader in a most efficient manner, and by his tenacity and dash has set a fine example to all.
On 29 August 1918 he shot down a Fokker biplane out of control northeast of Arras. Confirmed by another pilot on patrol.
On 19 August 1918 he shot down out of control a Fokker biplane in the vicinity of Combles. Confirmed by another pilot.
On 25 August 1918, when on Low Offensive Patrol, two Fokker biplanes were attacked at 2,000 feet. He fired 200 rounds into one which spun and crashed into the ground near Sapignies. Confirmed by another pilot on patrol.
Later on the sane day, when on Offensive Patrol northeast of Baupaume at 6.30 p.m., five Fokker biplanes were seen below at 8,000 feet. He dived on one and after firing 150 rounds the enemy machine turned on its back and fell out of control. He then attacked another of the enemy aeroplanes and chased it down; after 600 rounds had been fired enemy aeroplane went down and crashed into the ground. Confirmed by another pilot on patrol.
On 8 August 1918 when on Low Patrol in the vicinity of Nesle, an enemy aeroplane two-seater dived on him. With two other pilots he engaged it and after firing 200 rounds the enemy machine went down and was sen to crash into the ground.
On 30 July 1918, when protecting low flying machines north of Vezilly an L.V.G. was observed. With two other pilots he attacked and died on enemy aeroplane several times. When at 200 feet, the enemy machine side-slipped steeply and crashed into the ground.
On 25 July 1918, when on Offensive Patrol in the vicinity of Villiers, he observed three Fokker biplanes attacking a Camel. He fired 100 rounds into one which fell out of control. He was then attacked by another which he fought from 13,000 to 8,000 feet. The enemy machine went down vertically and crashed into a wood south of Villiers.
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LUXTON, Lieutenant Ralph Hayman - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 6 January 1919. Born 15 April 1887; home in Spring Grove, Saskatchewan; formerly an officer in Canadian Field Artillery. Joined RFC in the field; with Home Establishment, 22 June 1917; Reading, 29 June 1917; Brooklands, 12 July 1917. With No.34 Squadron as observer, 23 August 1917 to 1 March 1919; graded as Flying Officer (Observer), 9 January 1918; injured in January 1918; to Italian Expeditionary Force, 2 March 1918.
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LYALL, Captain Peter Douglas Lorne, Captain (Acting Lieutenant-Colonel) - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Member of Canadian Forestry Corps; for services in France. Originally with 90th Regiment (Winnipeg Rifles); proceeded oveeseas, May 1917; transferred to Forestry Corps, June 1917; to France June 1917; repatriated June 1919. Although the Jackson List (DHist document 000.8 D81) shows no specific attachment to RFC/RAF, his award was clearly at the instigation of Air Ministry, presumably for airfield construction. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".