CAIN, Captain Richard Claude - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Born 1891; father living in Isle of Man; educated in England. Served in Canadian Civil Service before the war and in Royal Canadian Horse Artillery for three years. Attached to Royal Flying Corps, 19 July 1917; commissioned 26 October 1917; appointed Flying Officer, 19 November 1917. Served in No.34 Squadron, 11 February to 27 October 1918 (wounded). Killed in flying accident, Hendon, 18 July 1919 (crash of a DH.10); see Flight, 7 August 1919, page 1053.

 

By his skill and initiative as an observer, this officer has on many occasions directed fire on enemy artillery, wagon lines and convoys, causing serious damage. His work has been most valuable, carried out at times under very difficult conditions. On a recent occasion he successfully bombed a bridge, obtaining a direct hit at a low altitude.

 

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CALDWELL, Lieutenant Robert Allan - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919 - Home in Iroquois, Ontario; formerly in 2nd Battalion, CEF; wounded twice in France; Hitchins lists indicate he returned to Canada and joined RFC in this country; taken on strength of RFC overseas, 23 March 1918; to No.23 Wing, 10 April 1918; to No.81 Squadron, 12 April 1918; to No.1 Flying School, 14 August 1918; with No.56 Squadron, 4 September 1918 to 5 February 1919. Killed at Dayton, Ohio, 11 July 1919, testing a parachute which failed to open.

 

This officer has been conspicuous for his daring attacks on ground targets. On September 28, descending to 400 feet over a town, he found it congested with transport. Flying along the streets, he dropped bombs with excellent results, and also attacked enemy troops with machine gun fire. Later, he materially assisted the advance of our infantry by diving on and engaging the enemy holding a bridgehead.

 

NOTE: The following, from Air Ministry, drafted when he had flown "ten patrols and one special mission", adds materially to the above:

 


No.56 Squadron, on the 28th September dived down to 400 feet over Catteniers -then seven to eight miles over the line - which he observed to be congested with lorries, guns and limbers. Flying along the streets he dropped four bombs separately, each with great effect. He then fired 350 rounds in all at assemblies of troops near Catteniers and on roads westwards. Seeing our troops advancing and skirmishing west of Noyelles, he five times attacked the enemy holding the bridgehead at Noyelles from 100 feet, greatly encouraging our New Zealand troops who were engaged and assisting them to discover the line held by the enemy. On the 3rd October Lieutenant Caldwell dropped four bombs into Beauvois and then descended to 100-200 feet, firing 400 rounds into the enemy trenches while we were attacking south of Cambrai. On the 4th October he destroyed an enemy balloon in flames north of Bohain at 5,000 feet in spite of very heavy anti-aircraft fire. On the way home he descended to 50 to 100 feet and created great confusion and did much damage to infantry, transport and artillery marching westwards to counter-attack, returning with his machine again much shot about.

 

NOTE: Canada, issue of 15 February 1919 erroneously reported he had been awarded the Bar to the DFC, and his obituary notice in the British Daily Whig (Kingston), 22 July 1919 repeated the mistake.

 

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CAMPBELL, Sergeant Roy Oswald (22025) - Distinguished Conduct Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 August 1917. Home in Kincardine, Ontario (traveller); went overseas with First Contingent of CEF as a Sergeant; to France, 11 February 1915 as Acting Company Sergeant-Major; WO2, 8 April 1915; attached to RFC, 13 November 1915; transferred to RFC, 8 February 1916; 2nd Lieutenant in RFC, 30 May 1917; killed in action, 27 September 1918. To No.87 Squadron, 25 December 1917; with No.65 Squadron, 15 June to 27 September 1918. NOTE: The Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum) suggest this may have been re-gazetted as a Meritorious Service Medal).

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Whilst acting as observer to another NCO, he and his comrade performed a most daring and successful photographic reconnaissance for the purpose of confirming information they already obtained respecting the working of hostile kite balloons. During this operation they were heavily fired upon, and their machine put completely out of control, but with wonderful coolness and presence of mind, they righted the machine, Sergeant. Campbell climbing on to the extreme tip of the wing in order to do this.

 

CAMPBELL, 2nd Lieutenant Roy Oswald - Decoration Militaire (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 24 September 1917.

 

CAMPBELL, 2nd Lieutenant Roy Oswald - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919; previously listed in Belgian Army Daily Orders of 21 May 1919 (Public Record Office Air 1/1839/204/208/20) for services with No.65 Squadron. No citation other than "for valuable services rendered in connection with the war".

 

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*CARR, 2nd Lieutenant Paul John - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette of October 1918 (authority unclear; mentioned in 1922 edition of Who's Who in American Aeronautics. American, born in Roanoke, Virginia, 4 April 1892; attended University of Virginia for two years; enlisted in RFC Canada, 16 September 1917; at Leaside, 1 February 1918; at Camp Hicks, Texas, 1 March 1918; appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 16 March 1918; sailed for overseas, 5 April 1918; advanced training in England; served in No.107 Squadron, 21 August to 3 December 1918 when assigned to instructors'course, Gosport; W/T course at Lakedown, England, 14 December 1918; W/T instructor, 30 December 1918 to May 1919. Was aawaiting repatriation at 14 TDS, Lakedown in May 1919; home destination was Waynesboro, Virginia. RAF List of June 1919 mentions him but with no reference to DFC; search of London Gazettes provides no confrmation of either award; citation from Who's Who in American Aeronautics. Given lack of confrmation, whole entry should be treated with suspicion unless confirmation acquired.

 

For bravery and devotion to duty in face of heavy odds. Destroyed enemy aircraft in combat, receiving bullet wound in the wrist; maneouvred plane so that two pursuing enemy aircraft were forced down, one out of control, one landing in our lines; by fire from observer's machine gun; landed plane in shell hole and reached our lines under heavy fire.

 

*CARR, 2nd Lieutenant Paul John - Croix de Guerre avec Palme (France) - authority unclear; mentioned in 1922 edition of Who's Who in American Aeronautics.

 

"... for landing plane in German territory and returning safely with French officer, obtaining valuable information of enemy movements."

 

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CARRIE, Lieutenant Douglas Scott - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in St.Thomas, Ontario (medical student); formerly in Canadian Army Service Corps, CEF; to RFC, 22 October 1917; to BEF, 17 July 1918; with No.10 Squadron, 20 July 1918 to 25 January 1919; to No.35 Squadron, 25 January to 21 February 1919. No citation published other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war". The following from Air 1/166/15/149/1/3685 - History of No.10 Squadron and probably not an official published citation but likely the basis of the recommendation.

 

Exceptionally gallant and continuous good work during period from the British attack on September 25th up to November 11th, working at low heights in the very bad wether prevailing at that period and always under heavy fire from the ground.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has detailed original recommendation for this award:

 

For exceptionally gallant and continuous good work and devotion to duty during the period of the British attack which commenced on 28 September 1918, flying frequently at very low heights in the bad weather which prevailed at this time and always under heavy machine gun and rifle fire from the ground.

 

This officer is conspicuous as an efficient and skilful pilot and he has set a very fine example to the other officers on the squadron.

 


He has been engaged, with notable success, on every kind of work which can be undertaken by a pilot in a Corps Reconnaissance squadron, including a large number of successful shoots on hostile batteries and a considerable amount of photographic work. He has also carried out many very successful Contact Patrols, flying at low altitudes, attacking the enemy's transport on the road and his men in the trenches and in shell holes and bring back much valuable information.

 

Particulars of a few of these patrols are given below:-

 

29 October 1918. On Contact Patrol he located our troops at thirteen points in shell holes. Observing a number of enemy troops in a trench, he and his observer attacked them with machine guns, causing several casualties and chased the remainder towards our own troops who captured them, the officer in charge waving in acknowledgement to the machine. Height, 50-1,000 feet.

 

14 October 1918. On Counter Attack Patrol he located enemy troops in several places round Gulleghem - fired 50 rounds Lewis at these causing casualties. He was fired at from seven places on the enemy line - own troops located on a 4,000 yards line.

 

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CARROLL, Captain Reginald Sheridan - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born 7 May 1896 in London, Ontario (bank clerk). Attended Curtiss Flying School, 1915; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation) in Canada, 7 December 1915; taken on strength of RFC overseas, 29 December 1915; to No.3 Wing, 25 May 1916; with No.4 Squadron, 25 May 1916 to uncertain date (but still there as of 22 October 1916). To No.1 Southern Aircraft Repair Depot, 1 March 1918. See Bank of Commerce Letters From the Front for details as test pilot.

 

* * * * *

 

CARROTHERS, Captain William Alexander - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Born 27 March 1889; home in Ireland but was a student in Winnipeg when he enlisted in 44th Battalion, CEF; to RAF as Observer, 22 June 1918; to No.206 Squadron, 7 July 1918; to Home Establishment, 10 January 1919. See also entry for Lieutenant Eldon Burn. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war". Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation:

 

A very skilful observer who never fails to bring back excellent and accurate reports no matter how troublesome enemy aeroplanes are. He has destroyed one enemy aeroplane. His reconnaissances from as low as 300 feet have been of the greatest importance.

 


CARROTHERS, Captain William Alexander - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919. No citatio other than "for valuable services rendered in connection with the war".

 

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CARTER, Major Albert Desbrisay - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 April 1918. Born 5 July 1892; home at Point de Buts, New Brunswick. From 13th Reserve Battalion, CEF to RFC, 26 May 1917 when posted to No.1 School of Military Aeronautics; to No.1 Training Squadron, 7 July 1917; to No.20 Training Squadron, 14 July 1917; to No.56 Training Squadron, 14 August 1917; with No.19 Squadron, 1 October 1917 to 19 May 1918 (POW, captured at La Basse). Repatriated 13 December 1918. Killed in flying accident with No.123 (Canadian) Squadron, 22 May 1919. No citation other than "for distinguishd services rendered during the course of the campaign".

 

CARTER, Major Albert Desbrisay - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 20 May 1918.

 

CARTER, Major Albert Desbrisay - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 February 1918; citation in issue of 18 July 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He destroyed two enemy aeroplanes, drove down several others out of control, and on two occasions attacked enemy troops from a low altitude. He showed great keenness and dash as a patrol leader.

 

CARTER, Major Albert Desbrisay - Bar to Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty as a fighting pilot. In three and a half months he destroyed thirteen enemy machines. He showed the utmost determination, keenness and dash, and his various successful encounters, often against odds, makes up a splendid record.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent by Brigadier D. le G. Pitcher, Commanding First Brigade, Royal Air Force, to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 18 May 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. As a fighting pilot he has shown the utmost determination, keenness and dash. Since the 1st October 1917 he has completely destroyed eleven enemy machines and shot down 15 completely out of control. Since being awarded the Distinguished Service Order, Major Carter has destroyed thirteen enemy machines.

 


On 16 May 1918, when on offensive patrol over Bucquoy, he attacked and fired two long bursts into an enemy two-seater, which fell out of control and in flames.

 

On 15 May 1918, in a general engagement with eight enemy scouts, between Quesnoy and Wervicq, he fired a long burst into a Triplane at close range. Enemy machine's right hand planes came away and it was certainly destroyed. He then attacked a Fokker Biplane, which he shot down completely out of control.

 

On 8 May 1918, he attacked an Albatross Scout southeast of Bailleul. Pieces were seen to fly from this enemy aeroplane and it fell in a nose dive completely out of control. This machine was undoubtedly destroyed.

 

On 2 May 1918, in a general engagement south of Armentieres, he shot down an enemy triplane completely out of control.

 

On 23 April 1918 in a general engagement with a formation of Pfalz Scouts north of La Bassee, he shot down one enemy aeroplane in flames (confirmed by another pilot), and another was seen to crash in a green field, where the machine crumpled into many pieces.

 

On 21 April 1918, he attacked one of seven Pfalz Scouts near Steenwerck. After a short fight the enemy aircraft stalled and fell completely out of control.

 

On 10 April 1918, he attacked an enemy two-seater near Neuve Chapelle. He fired several bursts at close range from under the tail of the enemy machine. Enemy aeroplane dived steeply from 800 feet and crashed into the ground, his tail sticking straight up into the air.

 

In addition to the above, this officer has destroyed four other enemy machines.

 

CARTER, Major Albert Desbrisay - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 31 December 1918.

 

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CARTER, Captain Alfred Williams - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 29 August 1917. Born on a ranch near Calgary, 29 April 1894. Home in Calgary; Canadian Militia, 1909-1915; joined RNAS as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 23 May 1916. With No.3 (Naval) Wing, 15 November 1916; with No.1 (Naval) Wing, 7 March 1917; with No.10 (Naval) Squadron, 2 July to 5 August 1917. On leave in Canada; rejoined unit, 14 January 1918; wounded 7 June 1918. Posted to England to instruct, but as of mid-October was back in France to organize a night fighter squadron. Immediately after the Armistice he was employed seeking out German aircraft. Declined a commission in RAF and returned to Canada, May 1919. Subsequently active with Air Board, 1920-1922, after which he became a Victoria auto dealer. Active in forming Air Cadet League, January 1939 onwards. Awarded OBE (Civil), 1 July 1946 for work in civil aviation and Air Cadets. Died in Vancouver, 17 December 1986.

 

This officer has at all times led his patrols with great courage, skill and pertinacity, often engaging superior numbers of hostile aircraft. On July 22nd, 1917, he engaged single-handed for half an hour five enemy scouts, which he prevented from carrying out a reconnaissance. On July 24th, 1917, with one other pilot he attacked four enemy aircraft, one of which he drove down completely out of control.

 

CARTER, Captain Alfred Williams - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war." Public Record Office Air 1/1511 has recommendation submitted by Lieutenant-Colonel G.W. Dawes, Officer Commanding, No.3 Brigade, Royal Air Force, identifying his unit as No.210 Squadron and stating:

 

This officer joined his squadron on 10 October 1918 and led his patrols with exceptional skill and dash. He assumed command of this squadron on 1 November 1918 when the Squadron Commander went on leave and from that date has commanded it with noticeable success, showing great powers of preserving discipline and organization. His services since joining No.210 Squadron have been of the greatest value.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/11 has a letter dated 9 June 1918 from the Commanding Officer, No.210 Squadron to Wing Headquarters. It is a remarkable document, and one can only wonder why it did not produce immediate results:

 

I wish to bring to your notice the name of Captain A.W. Carter, DSC, as worthy of further reward in recognition of his services during the past five months.

 

He is an exceptionally capable and conscientious officer and by his courage, skill and good leadership has set a splendid example to the squadron. He has done 487 hours war flying.

 

He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in July 1917 after having destroyed two enemy machines and driven five others down out of control. Since February of this year he has destroyed five enemy machines and driven one down out of control. The most outstanding of his achievements since last February are appended:-

 

1918

 

February 19th: Attacked one of four enemy aeroplane scouts over lines southeast of Ypres. Followed from 8,000 to 50 feet and observed enemy aeroplane crash in canal south of Zillebeke Lake and burst into flames.

 


April 10th: Attacked L.V.G. two-seater over Neuf Berquin from 100 yards. Enemy aeroplane dived steeply and hit ground before he could flatten out. Crashed in Neuf Berquin and burst into flames. Confirmed by Lieutenant Nelson.

 

May 8th: In general engagement with 14 enemy aeroplane Albatross and Pfalz Scouts over Armentieres, Captain Carter attacked five in succession, and in the case of the latter - an Albatross - after a burst of 100 rounds from 50 to 15 yards on enemy aeroplanes, tail pieces were observed to fall from the machine and it went down completely out of control. Confirmed by Captain Alexander.

 

May 9th: Captain Carter, with Captain Arnold and Lieutenant Hall, attacked an Albatross two-seater one mile north of Aubers. he withheld fire until within 20 to 15 yards and fired a burst of 50 rounds into the pilot, raking it with a further 100 rounds from ten yards as it dived vertically, causing a cloud of white smoke to issue from it. Captain Arnold and Lieutenant Hall fired about 200 rounds at 30 to 20 yards. Enemy aeroplane went down out of control and was seen to crash. Confirmed by Captain Carter, Captain Arnold, Lieutenants Hall, Joseph and Frost.

 

May 31st: Led patrol in attack on formation of six enemy aeroplanes (Albatross, Triplanes and one two-seater fighter). Captain Carter got on the tail of the leader flying a Triplane and fired 30 rounds at 20 to 15 yards. Enemy aeroplane went down in a spiral dive, alternately stalling and diving, and was seen to crush about two miles south of Estaires. Confirmed by Lieutenants Coombes and Joseph.

 

June 5th: Escort led by captain Carter was attacked by about 12 enemy aeroplanes and one enemy Triplane and Lieutenant Baird had an engagement at very close quarters. Captain Carter went to the latter's assistance and got on enemy aeroplane's tail at about 1,000 feet and fired a decisive burst at 50 yards range. Enemy aeroplane broke off and went down east, landing and crashing to the right of Bailleul-Armentieres railway.

 

April 12th: Captain Carter led flight in attack on five Hostile Kite Balloons between Vielle Chapelle and Estaires. All observers jumped out and Captain Carter shot one who hung entangled below his balloon. One balloon was sent down smoking and burst into flames on ground, the others being driven down probably damaged.

 

May 26th: Attacked an Hostile Kite Balloon northwest of Armentieres, firing 250 rounds from 200 to 100 yards. Balloon failed to take fire, but was hauled down smoking.

 


Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/13 has an undated recommendation for a DFC. It states that he had been in France between 2 July and 15 August 1917 and again from 14 January to 12 August 1918. His appointment is given as Officer Commanding, Detached Flight, Freiston Air Station, and a box on the form states he had flown 250 days in the previous twelve months.

 

This officer rendered exceptionally good service whilst with this squadron. He is a most capable and conscientious pilot and an efficient Flight Commander. He has destroyed six enemy machines and driven down six out of control. In addition he has destroyed a hostile kite balloon and driven another down smoking. With other pilots he has also destroyed a further enemy machine. He has done 490 hours War Flying over the lines.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/13 has a further document, this one dated 26 October 1918 and emanating from No.210 Squadron. One part says, "Captain Carter was appointed Acting Flight Commander, RNAS on 14 February 1918 and prior to that date had been leading a flight for six months". The main text reads:

 

An exceptionally capable and conscientious officer with 18 months active service experience. Ability to command good. Previously recommended whilst with RNAS and recommendation endorsed by Brigadier-General C.L. Lambe, RAF (then Captain, RN). Recommended again on 21 April 1918 to 10th Wing.

 

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CARTER, Captain Frank Morley - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Orillia, Ontario (dentist); overseas with 157th Battalion, CEF; to RFC, 11 January 1916; served in No.6 Squadron, 28 June to 31 July 1916; with No.15 Squadron, 31 July 1916 to unknown date (but still there in May 1917); with No.107 Squadron, 7 June 1918 to unknown date.

 

A fine leader who has taken part in numerous bombing raids, many of them at very low altitudes. He has done valuable service in reconnaissance duty, his reports being invariably accurate and informing. During the recent operations his squadron has suffered severe casualties, and it is due in no small measure to his personal influence that the fighting spirit of the squadron has been maintained at a high level.

 

NOTE: An Air Ministry report dated 5 December 1918 (DHist 181.002 D.100) has a further report, saying he came to unit on 6 June 1918 and had participated in 23 bombing raids, "leading his formations very successfully and on most occasions obtaining direct hits on his objectives. He has also destroyed one enemy aircraft."

 

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CASSELS, Lieutenant Hamilton - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919; for services in Canada. Home in Toronto; served in 48th Highlanders in France, 1915-1916; wounded on Somme, 14 September 1916. Invalided October 1916; discharged June 1917; attached to RFC/RAF Canada; Adjutant, No.44 Wing, Camp Borden; (some information from University of Toronto Roll of Service).

 

CASSELS, Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Hamilton - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per Canada Gazette dated 5 July 1919 and London Gazette dated 3 June 1919, for services with RAF Canada; no citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".

 

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CATCHPOLE, Captain Basil Everard - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918 - Born in South London, 20 January 1896; to Canada in 1907; home in Hatzic, British Columbia (clerk). To France, 25 August 1917; No.21 Squadron, 4 September 1917 but other notation on card gives service with that unit as 22 April to 18 December 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. This officer has been observing for artillery during the last eight months often flying at low altitudes over the enemy lines under heavy anti-aircraft and machine-gun fire. The following is three consecutive days' work: - (1) While on patrol, flying at 400 feet, he fired 900 round under intense anti-aircraft and machine-gun fire; (2) carried out two very successful shoots, observing on hostile batteries, dropped four bombs, and saw several large explosions, also fired 800 rounds into farms, orchards and trenches; (3) left the ground in the dark on artillery patrol and located accurately 20 hostile batteries. In the afternoon he did four good shoots in two flights, causing explosions in every case. He flew for eight hours this day. He has always set up a splendid example for his squadron.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air/1255/204/8/39 has the recommendation for this award as of 23 May 1918 as drafted by Major L.T.B. Gould (Commanding Officer, No.21 Squadron), Lieutenant-Colonel E.L. Gossage (Officer Commanding, No.1 Wing, Royal Air Force) and Brigadier L.W.P. East (Commander, Heavy Artillery, XIII Corps). This represents considerable documentation on behalf of this officer and his award:

 

For conspicuous gallantry and magnificent work during the past eight months whilst observing for artillery, often flying at low altitudes over the enemy lines under heavy anti-aircraft and machine gun fire, especially as follows:

 

On the 22nd May 1918, while on Artillery Patrol near Le Cornet Malo, he fired 900 rounds into various ground targets, flying at 400 feet well over the enemy lines, being subjected to intense anti-aircraft and machine gun fire.

 


On the 21st May 1918 he carried out two very successful shoots, observing for 148th Siege Battery on hostile batteries RC.56 and RA.75, observing several large explosions and dropping four bombs. He also fired 800 rounds with his machine gun into farms, orchards and trenches along XIII Corps front east of La Bassee Canal, north of Hinges.

 

On the 20th May 1918 he left the ground in the dark at 3.15 a.m. on Artillery Patrol between Calonne Sur La Lys and Lacon, and located accurately 20 hostile batteries. The majority of these were new positions and in most cases he pin-pointed each gun separately, and altogether brought back very valuable information. This flight was undertaken at a very low altitude under heavy anti-aircraft and machine gun fire.

 

In the afternoon of the same day he did four good shoots in two flights on the hostile batteries he had found in the morning, causing explosions in every case and damaging the positions badly, carrying out eight hours flying on the lines that day.

 

On the 17th May 1918 he carried out a pre-arranged shoot and a "MQNF" shoot in one flight, in the latter ranging two 9.2-inch howitzers with 57 rounds in one hour 14 minutes, causing five explosions and three fires in the enemy battery position near Paradis.

 

On the 16th May 1918 he again did a pre-arranged and an MQNF shoot in one flight, causing numerous large explosions and fires near Paradis in the first, and several small explosions in the second.

 

On the 4th May 1918 he ranged a 6-inch battery, firing 34 rounds in 38 minutes observing fire for effect and causing a large explosion. He also re-ranged with eight rounds, observing fire for effect again. In the same flight, he located accurately, six enemy batteries near Fosse, reporting them to the Artillery by zone call, and firing 350 rounds with his machine gun from a height of 1,000 feet at a very active hostile battery which was shelling the battery he was ranging. This hostile battery was completely silenced. He was subjected to very heavy enemy fire from the ground throughout this flight.

 

On the 16th March 1918, near Moorslede, he carried out two successful destructive shoots in one flight; in the first case ranging a 6-inch battery with 42 rounds in 53 minutes, observing fire for effect, and re-ranging with 35 rounds. He also observed for a 9.2-inch battery 42 rounds in 45 minutes, observing fire for effect and causing an enormous explosion.

 

On the night of the 1st February 1918, he went up in a storm and dropped twelve bombs on Oostnieukerke. No other machine crossed the lines this night.

 

On the 18th January 1918 he ranged a 9.2-inch battery on a hostile emplacement near Moorslede, observing 57 rounds in 54 minutes, and causing six explosions and a large fire.

 


Captain Catchpole has always set a magnificent example to his squadron and has personally undertaken any duty allotted to his flight, which has necessitated flying well over the lines or at a low altitude. It has been greatly due to the accuracy and detail of his reports that our artillery has been able to effectively cope with the constant moving of the enemy guns from one position to another during the recent activity on the XIII Corps front during, and subsequent to, the enemy attacks north of the La Bassee Canal.

 

Accompanying this was a copy of a message sent by Brigadier-General R. Wellesley, General Officer Commanding Royal Artillery, XIII Corps to No.21 Squadron and to interested artillery units (21 May 1918):

 

The Corps Commander wishes to congratulate Captain Catchpole and Lieutenant Haywood, No.21 Squadron, Royal Air Force, and the Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Gunners of the 148th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery in the very successful results of their observation and shooting on May 20th.

 

The same document is found in Public Record Office Air 1/1479/204/36/134.

 

Another document (Air/1255/204/8/39), dated 9 May 1918, indicates that he joined No.21 Squadron on 5 October 1917, had flown "about 250 hours" as of 9 May 1918 and first recommended him for an award. It listed notable flights on 18 January, 1 February, 11 March, 16 March and 4 May 1918. Most of these are described above (although the bombs carried on 1 February 1918 are described as 25-pound missiles). The sortie of 11 March 1918 is narrated thusly:

 

Two successful knockout shoots on enemy batteries in one flight, in the first ranging an 8-inch battery 37 rounds in 55 minutes. During fire for effect one gun went off and he re-ranged. He also ranged a 6-inch battery 29 rounds in 37 minutes and observed the fire for effect.

 

A further document, drafted by the Commanding Officer of No.21 Squadron and dated 20 May 1918, provided additional information, this time describing his exploits of 16 May, 17 May and 20 May 1918; these were incorporated into the extended recommendation already noted.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/1479/204/36/134 has a note dated 21 May 1918 over the signature of the Brigadier Commanding Heavy Artillery, XIII Corps:

 

Captain B.E. Catchpole has done excellent work for the Heavy Artillery of this Corps since the 21st Squadron has been working with us, and I heartily endorse Major Gould's recommendation for an immediate award for this officer.

 

Air/1255/204/8/39 also contains a note dated 23 May 1918 from the General Officer Commanding, Royal Artillery, XIII Corps:

 


On May 20th, 1918, Captain B.E. Catchpole, No.21 Squadron, RAF, flew over the enemy's lines at 3.15 a.m. while a heavy hostile bombardment of Hinges was in progress. He was successful in locating over 20 hostile batteries which were active at the time.

 

He subsequently carried out four successful shoots with the 148th Seige Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery. He was over eight hours in the air altogether, and his location of hostile batteries and observation of fire were so accurate that very many fires and explosions were caused in the hostile battery positions, and these batteries did not again re-open fire.

 

CATCHPOLE, Captain Basil Everard - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

This officer has at all times set a magnificent example of courage and determination to his flight and it is very largely owing to his energy and judgement that the marked success which has been obtained by his Flight, both in observation for our long range artillery and in photography of their objectives, is due.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air/1255/204/8/39 has the recommendation for this award as of 20 August 1918 when he was being forwarded by Lieutenant-Colonel E.L. Gossage, Officer Commanding, No.1 Wing. It is remarkable for the detail, and the evident determination of Catchpole's superiors to reward him. The document says he was awarded the Military Cross on 2 June 1918, which may be a reference to when he was recommended; alternatively, it may the effect date of the award (as distinct from gazetting date). His unit is given as "L" Flight, No.1 Wing, suggesting that he had been detached from his squadron for special duties. Some of the phrasing is obscure (such as "20 rounds were observed and up to 38 for effect") but the text is transcribed as found:

 

For conspicuous skill and gallantry in observing for the fire of our long range heavy artillery on targets, all of which are at a considerable distance over the enemy's lines and also for procuring most successful photographs of all targets so engaged.

 

Particularly on 14th August 1918, when he observed for the 4th Battery, 75th Regiment, French Heavy Artillery (three 13-inch guns) on the enemy Long Range Gun at Meurchin and carried out a most successful shoot during a flight of 2 hours. Twenty rounds were observed and up to 38 for effect. A large explosion and fire occurred.

 

Previously in the day, during a flight of 2 hours, he exposed 18 plates over Fournes Dump, the Meurchin gun, Corbenham Dump, Douai and Dechy Stations, and obtained a series of photographs from which the army has gained a large amount of most valuable information.

 


In addition, this officer has carried out the following:

 

13th August 1918. A very successful shoot on Fournes Dump with three of our 9.2-inch guns. During a flight of three hours, about 20 rounds were observed for ranging and each Battery fired up to 30 rounds for effect with observation also. One Battery was re-ranged in addition. A huge explosion was caused in one of the dumps and two or three small explosions also. A valuable series of photographs was also taken of Provin and Meurchin on the same day.

 

On 11th August 1918. He carried out a highly successful shoot with the 4th Battery (75th French Heavy Artillery Regiment) on Provin Dump, observing 18 rounds and up to 36 for effect, although the visibility was far from good. Three or four small explosions and fires were caused in the Dump and considerable damage was revealed by photographs subsequently taken.

 

On 9th August 1918 he procured several successful photographs of Henin Lietard at the special request of Royal Artillery, First Army, with a view to locating an enemy H.V. gun. Plates were also exposed over Dourges and Courcelles.

 

On 31st July 1918. While taking photographs over Aubers, he successfully engaged an enemy two-seater machine and drove it off, and continued his work.

 

This officer has at all times set a magnificent example of courage and determination to his Flight and it is entirely owing to his energy and judgement that the success which has been obtained by his Flight, both in observation for our long range artillery and in photography of their targets is due.

 

A slightly edited version of the above is found in Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 when it went from 1st Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force (21 August 1918).

 

CATCHPOLE, Captain Basil Everard - Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered."

 

* * * * *

 

CATHCART, 2nd Lieutenant John Holmes - Croix de Guerre (France) - award date and authority not known. DHist card says he was from Swift Current, Saskatchewan (school master) and was with No.44 Training Squadron as of 29 April 1918. No other military service is indicated. His name appears on a list of Canadians decorated for work in the flying servuces (National Archives of Canada, RG.9 III C-14 Volume 4608) but the list includes many people whose honours were won as members of the CEF. More research needed.

 

* * * * *


CAVERS, Lieutenant James Pomeroy - Mentioned for Gallant Conduct and Distinguished Services Rendered from March 1st to October 1st - awarded as per London Gazette dated 30 January 1919. Born 29 December 1892 in Galt; educated there, Upper Canada College, and University of Toronto. Home in Toronto (student); served in No.47 Squadron, 1 April to 22 August 1918, and No.150 Squadron, 22 August to 3 September 1918 (killed in action). According to University of Toronto Roll of Honour he was wounded with CEF in July 1916 and on recovery transferred to RFC. To Balkan front in August 1917. On 3 September on escort duty protecting reconnaissance aircraft when he was attacked by six enemy aircraft. To protect the slower machine he stayed and fought and his aircraft hit and fell into Lake Doiran. As he was swimming to shore he was shot and sank. Two days earlier he had brought down two enemy aircraft.

 

* * * * *

 

CHADWICK, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold Jacques - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 August 1917. Born in Toronto, 23 August 1895. Student of music in Toronto; studying music and modern languages in Germany; escaped that country five weeks after war declared. Attended Curtiss School in Toronto but did not complete the course (possibly because flying was suspended by winter weather). Joined RNAS in Ottawa, 30 December 1915 as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant. At Eastchurch, 17 January 1916; at Chingford, 8 March 1916; at White City, 24 March 1916; at Chingford, 14 April 1916; at Eastchurch, 30 July 1916; at Dover, 17 August 1916; with No.5 (N) Wing, 14 September to 2 October 1916 (missing, "having been overtaken by a storm whilst flying over the German lines in Flanders"; returned to unit from Holland after effecting escape); leave in Canada from 17 November 1916; to Dover, 20 January 1917; to No.5 (N) Wing, 22 January 1917. Missing (drowned), 31 July 1917; body washed up by tide near Dunkirk, 8 August 1917. According to his CO "He was a very gallant pilot and a good officer. During the last four months he has led his flight with conspicuous success and certainly caused six machines and several Kite Balloons to descend."

 

For exceptional gallantry and remarkable skill and courage whilst serving with the RNAS at Dunkirk during May and June, 1917, in repeatedly attacking and destroying hostile aircraft.

 

Aeroplane of 8 November 1916 reported him Now reported not missing as of 4 November 1916 and wrote:

 

Les Nouvelles of Maastricht, states that pilot Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold Chadwick, who took part in the raid of October 2nd on the Zeppelin hangars at Brussels, has arrived in Holland. After the raid he was compelled to land owing to a motor defect at seven oclock in the morning in the neighbourhood of Tirlemont. He wanted to set fire to his machine, but had no matches, and had to take to flight when a motor car full of Germans came up. He donned a peasants cap and blouse, and succeeded in reaching a neighbouring town, where he his for several weeks. After a series of adventures he managed to reach the Dutch frontier.


NOTE: Public Records Office Air 1/74 has a letter from Wing Captain (Dover Patrol) to Headquarters, RNAS dated 15 June 1917 citing A.M. Shook, A.J. Chadwick, and L.F.W. Smith as above, adding "more especially on the occasions of hostile bombing attacks on England."

 

The same document also has a memo dated 11 June 1917 from Headquarters, No.4 (Naval) Wing, Dunkirk, stating he was on "No.4 Squadron attached to this Wing" and stating that he was "deserving of special recognition" (although no particular award named):

 

This officer is a very skilful and determined pilot, and has attacked many hostile aircraft, descending very low behind the enemy's lines and over their aerodromes.

 

I credit him with the destruction of four machines. He has previously done much bombing, being on one occasion taken prisoner, but subsequently escaping.

 

FURTHER NOTE: Public Records Office Air 1/74 has a memo from Senior Officer, RNAS Dunkirk to Vice Admiral, Dover Patrol dated 17 July 1917. It recommends several officers for awards (Reid and Chadwick included), and lists them in order of merit (see Breadner). The text for Chadwick differs markedly from that which was published in the London Gazette and from other documents found:

 

Joining Dunkerque on 2nd October 1916, this officer has always performed conspicuously good work. He has participated in bombing raids on Brussels Airship Station, Bruges Docks, Ghistelles Aerodrome and also on hostile shipping. He was reported "missing" from the Brussels raid, having been forced down in enemy territory, but succeeded in making his escape and returned to England. He has had a great many engagements with the enemy, destroying over twelve hostile machines. During the bombardment of Dunkerque by long range guns, Flight Commander Chadwick attacked two enemy kite balloons which he forced down, shooting the observer of one who endeavoured to make his escape by parachute. During the raid on England last month, this officer was one of the pilots who attempted to intercept the enemy on their return, and succeeded in destroying one large enemy seaplane and assisting in the destruction of another.

 

Folio 165 of Air 1/74 (circa July 1917) also has the following:

 

He has destroyed eight enemy machines and has on three occasions forced down balloons. Has always fought with the utmost gallantry and pluck.

 

NOTE: The Harry Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum) have extensive notes on him including what are clearly excerpts copied from his logbook (whereabouts of the original document unstated).

 

* * * * *

 


**CHAMBERLAYNE, Lieutenant Paul Richard Tankerville - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. This name appears in a list of Canadians published by R.V. Dodds (The Brave Young Wings) but Canadian ties are uncertain. RFC/RAF Canada documents state that he was formerly with the 11th Hussars, and was present in Canada as an RAF instructor as of June 1918. It is doubtful if he had connections with this country before or after 1918 (data as of 28 April 1997). During the Second World War he was awarded a CBE for services in connection with air training in South Africa.

 

* * * * *

 

*CHANDLER, Captain Robert North - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Born in London, England, 18 December 1898; educated in England until late 1916. Joined RFC as a Cadet, 8 March 1917. With No.73 Squadron, March to August 1918 (DHist cards) or 8 January to 19 October 1918 (RCAF personnel records); instructor, 20 November 1918 to 25 May 1919. Demobilized, 26 May 1919. Migrated to Canada and applied unsuccessfully to join the CAF, 1923. Obtained a Private Pilot's License and in 1930 applied for a Commercial License. In RCAF as an Administrative Officer, 1 April 1940 to 14 January 1946.

 

In aerial fighting this officer has destroyed three enemy aircraft and driven down two others out of control. He has also displayed marked courage in attacking enemy troops, etc., on the ground. On 28th October, having attacked enemy troops with great success and silenced an anti-tank gun, he later on silenced two enemy machine guns and inflicted heavy casualties on infantry in shell holes. Whilst so engaged his machine was hit in the engine and he was forced to land.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1837 has recommendation for a French decoration which does not appear to have been awarded (or else it became the basis of his DFC):

 

This officer has at all times done splendid service. During the attack between Montdidier and Noyon, he attacked transport, scattering them with bombs and machine gun fire, and bringing back valuable and accurate reports of the situation. He has accounted for three enemy machines, and has always supported his patrol leader with great dash.

 

* * * * *

 


CHARLEY, Captain Reginald Morse - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 25 April 1918 (although it was reported in RFC Communique No.116 dated 1 December 1916). Born in Gloucester, England, 3 August 1892; attended Bristol University; moved to United States at undetermined date. Obtained ACA Certificate No.486 at Curtiss School, Newport News, 10 May 1916; appointed Lieutenant, Canadian Militia, 14 June 1916; appointed Flying Officer, 30 September 1916. RFC Communique No.104 says that on 7 September 1917 he was in No.54 Squadron, opened fire on German scout attacking a Sopwith scout, and shot it down - seen to crash in sea. RFC Communique No.105 says he selected one of eight Albatross scouts which he fought for some time and finally shot down completely out of control. Home in Pittsburg before enlistment and as of 1919 was proceeding there with wife and child.

 

He attacked a hostile balloon which was eventually brought down in flames. With four other pilots he attacked eight enemy scouts and drove two down. He has driven down four other enemy aircraft, usually fighting with his patrol against greatly superior numbers.

 

CHARLEY, Captain Reginald Morse - Croix de Guerre (France) - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 April 1918. No citation other than "for distinguished services rendered during the course of the campaign".

 

* * * * *

 

CHASE, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Charles Keith - Distinguished Service Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 April 1917. Appointed Observer and Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS, 21 October 1916; still Observer in RAF List, November 1918. Cited with Flight Lieutenant Charles Cyril Rogers Edwards.

 

In recognition of their services on March 1st, 1917, when they were attacked by two hostile machines whilst on a reconnaissance flight and brought them both down out of control. Flight Lieutenant Edwards was hit by a bullet which passed through the left shoulder, fracturing the collar bone, and at the same time was slightly wounded in both feet. Although suffering considerably, he brought his machine home safely, in spite of being again attacked by two hostile aircraft. By his determination and pluck he probably saved his own life and that of his observer.

 

CHASE, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Charles Keith - Croix de Guerre (France) - Public Records Office Air 1/74 has a memo dated 14 April 1917 stating that he was a member of No.3 (N) Squadron and had been invested with the award that day by Genenral Nollet, commanding 36th French Army Corps. This does not appear to have been gazetted.

 

* * * * *

 


CHILD, 2nd Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) James Martin - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 May 1917. Born in England (parents in Leytonstone); went to Canada to try banking and prospecting. Enlisted in Canadian Militia; struck off strength of CEF to Imperial Army, 29 January 1915. DHist card also says that on outbreak of war, failing to be included in first and second CEF contingents, went to England at his own expense and obtained a commission in the British army (unit variously described as Manchester Regiment and Durham Light Infantry; London Gazette entries favour Manchester Regiment). Transferred to RFC; obtained Royal Aero Club Certificate No.2377, 31 January 1916. Served in Nos 19 and 84 Squadrons (dates uncertain; see victory list below). Killed 23 August 1918 in Scotland "after an endeavour to rescue fellow officers from aeroplane accident". See Letters From the Front. Public Record Office Air 1/1158/204/5/2488 has recommendation for his Mention in Despatches as submitted by Major-General H.M. Trenchard, CB, DSO, Commanding Royal Flying Corps in the Field.

 

Has proved himself a bold fighter on Offensive Patrols. Has participated in many successful bomb raids.

 

CHILD, 2nd Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) James Martin - Chevalier, Order of Leopold (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 24 September 1917.

 

CHILD, Captain James Martin - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 4 February 1918. Citation published in London Gazette of 2 July 1918.

 

While leading a patrol he encountered four enemy scouts, one of which he destroyed. On another occasion he attacked one of two enemy two-seater machines which he encountered over the enemy's lines. He disabled the machine and skilfully turned it towards our lines, where the enemy pilot was forced to land, and he and his observer were taken prisoner. On another occasion he attacked five enemy scouts, one of which he destroyed. He showed the greatest judgement and determination.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation submitted by Headquarters, 3 Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps on 3 December 1917.

 

For skill and gallantry.

 

On 22 November 1917 Captain Child when leading a parol encountered four Albatross Scouts east of Bourlon Wood. The leader of the German formation came straight for Captain Child firing as he came. Captain Child did not fire at the enemy machine but held straight on until the German pilot was forced to turn to avoid a collision. Captain Child had been waiting for this, with his fingers on the gun controls, and as the enemy aeroplane stated to bank and turn he gave it a long burst from both guns at very close range. He could see his tracers hitting the belly of the German's fuselage. The enemy aeroplane rolled over and spun to earth. He was seen to crash by Lieutenant Davies of No.84 Squadron.

 


Captain Child soon afterwards was over Cambrai and noticed two German two-seaters making as if to cross our lines. He did not directly attack, but climbed up into the clouds out of sight. He then dived on one of the enemy aeroplanes and in the first burst from his guns hit the enemy aeroplane in the petrol tank. The German's engine stopped. He turned east and tried to glide back into his own lines. Captain Child got between him and the lines, and in spite of a determined attempt by the other enemy aeroplane to help his friend, forced him to turn west by continuous and accurate fire. The German pilot,seeing his case was hopeless, fired off a white light in token of surrender, and landed in our lines near Flesquieres. Pilot, observer and machine were taken intact.

 

On 30 November 1917 Captain Child was on patrol, when he saw five or six Albatross scouts going west towards our lines. he immediately attacked this formation, and fired a burst from both his guns into the rear enemy aeroplane. The enemy machine dropped its nose and dived to earth. It hit the ground at the corner of a ploughed field near Malincourt, a total wreck.

 

Since receiving a Belgian decoration Captain Child has destroyed five enemy aircraft. He has always shown the greatest judgement and determination in carrying out any mission entrusted to him.

 

CHILD, Captain James Martin - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 March 1918 (in list, Aeroplane, 8 January 1919).

 

NOTE: Harry Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum) include a list of victories that serve as a guide to postings, compiled from RFC Communiques as follows:

 

23 April 1917 - No.19 Squadron - one enemy aircraft out of control (RFC Communique No.85)

 

25 May 1917 - No.19 Squadron - one enemy aircraft out of control (RFC Communique No.89)

 

21 October 1917 - No.84 Squadron - one enemy aircraft out of control (RFC Communique No.110)

 

8 November 1917 - No.84 Squadron - one enemy aircraft out of control, with Lieutenant F.E. Brown (RFC Communique No.113)

 

22 November 1917 - No.84 Squadron - one enemy aircraft destroyed and one enemy aircraft forced down in British lines (RFC Communique No.113)

 

30 November 1917 - No.84 Squadron - one enemy aircraft destroyed (RFC Communique No.116)

 

2 February 1918 - unit not stated - killed the observer of a DFW but could not continue combat owing to gun trouble (RFC Communique No.125)

 

* * * * *

 


CHISHOLM, Captain John Foster - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 February 1918. Born in Toronto, 3 August 1896. Home in Westmount, Quebec (student, McGill University). Awarded ACA Certificate No.422, 23 February 1916, following attendance at Curtiss School, Newport News; taken on strength of RNAS in Ottawa, 29 January 1916 as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant. With No.3 (Naval) Wing, November 1916 to March 1917; with No.2 (Naval) Squadron, 21 April 1917; joined No.218 Squadron, 22 April 1918; shot down (interned in Holland), 26 September 1918; repatriated from Holland, 15 November 1918. After the war he trained as a lawyer and was appointed a KC in 1937.

 

In recognition of his services on December 6th, 1917, when he carried out a photographic reconnaissance in the vicinity of Zeebrugge, and for the great skill and determination with which he has carried out his duties at all times.

 

CHISHOLM, Captain John Foster - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918.

 

A gallant and successful Flight Commander. He has led his formation in twenty-five raids in a period of thirty days, generally to a distance of 25 miles over the lines. On a recent occasion he encountered seven enemy aircraft whilst he was engaged in bombing a particularly dangerous enemy position. He destroyed one enemy machine, and his formation accounted for three more. All our machines returned safely.

 

* * * * *

 

CHRISTIAN, Lieutenant Leo Arthur - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Born 9 October 1892. Home in Armstrong, British Columbia (farmer, horse breeder); taken on strength of RNAS in Ottawa, 19 April 1917 as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant. With No.206 Squadron, 23 July to 30 August 1918. NOTE: Creagen papers give his name as Leonard Arthur Christian. The same issue of the London Gazette announced a DFC to his pilot, Captain Leslie Reginald Warren (citation in Nick and Carol Carter, The Distinguished Flying Cross and How It Was Won, 1918-1995.

 

Since joining his squadron this officer has taken part in 47 bomb raids, displaying at all times keenness and determination, and rendering his pilot most valuable support. He has accounted for four enemy aeroplanes, destroying two and driving down two out of control.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation forwarded to Royal Air Force Headquarters, 24 July 1918.

 


This observer has taken part in 47 successful bomb raids since joining the squadron, and has always evinced the greatest keenness and determination. He has destroyed two enemy aeroplanes, namely a triplane on the 7th June and a Pfalz Scout on the 12th. On the 19th May and 1st July, he drove down out of control a further two enemy aeroplanes. He has always given the greatest assistance to his formation in keeping off enemy aeroplanes whilst on bombing raids and has always brought back accurate reports. He has also carried out five Long Distance Reconnaissances with Captain Warren and on all occasions rendered his pilot valuable support.

 

The same document has the recommendation for Captain Warren's award, forwarded on 24 July 1918. Although he was British, the submission adds context to Lieutenant Christian's award and is transcribed here:

 

Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Leslie Reginald Warren has taken part in 46 successful raids since the squadron commenced work on Match 9th, fourteen of which he has led. He has always shown the greatest determination on these raids and has many times driven off hostile aircraft attacking his formation, to and from the objective. It is due to his good leadership that his formation have only suffered one casualty during these raids. Whilst the squadron was at Dunkirk he took part in a very successful raid on Bruges Docks on March 23rd, on the return from which he shot down out of control a Pfalz Scout. On May 3rd he destroyed an Albatross Scout, and on the 7th June and 1st July, he shot down two enemy aeroplanes out of control. He has always evinced the greatest keenness for his work and has set a splendid example to the pilots of the squadron. Besides raids, he has taken many Counter Battery area photographs with success and has carried out five Long Distance Reconnaissances and rendered valuable reports.

 

* * * * *

 

CHURCHWARD, 2nd Lieutenant Gerald Dundas - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per unknown authority. From London Ontario; former member of Royal Canadian Dragoons, with whom he had won (as a Staff-Sergeant) the Military Medal (London Gazette, 14 December 1916). This MiD may also be from his service with them. With No.6 Squadron, 14 August 1918 to 3 March 1919.

 

* * * * *

 


CLAPPISON, 2nd Lieutenant Henry Gordon - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919; previously listed in Belgian Army Daily Orders of 21 May 1919 (Public Record Office Air 1/1839/204/208/20). Born in Hamilton, 1 October 1898; home there (student); appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, 8 December 1917; confirmed as 2nd Lieutenant (Aeroplanes), Royal Air Force, 28 May 1918; Acting Captain (Aeroplanes), 14 October 1918; relinquished commission 15 April 1919 on account of ill health. Cards held by DHist say he joined No.204 Squadron, 14 October 1918 but see below. Record of Service gives postings as follows: Greenwich, 8 December 1917; Chingford, 9 March 1918; Vendome, 19 March 1918; Freiston, 1 June 1918; No.6 Wing, 7 August 1918; No.204 Squadron, British Expeditionary Force, 14 October 1918; Hospital at Hampstead, 25 December 1918. Postwar be became a civil engineer but during the Second World War he joined the RCAF and was awarded the OBE. Died 15 May 1977 in Toronto. Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has recommendation by Major R.S. Lucy (date not certain):

 

Joined No.204 Squadron, 13 August 1918. Has destroyed five enemy machines and taken part in 25 low bombing raids in Flanders, at all times showing great courage and devotion to duty.

 

The aerial combats in which this officer has taken part are as follows:

 

20 September 1918: five miles northeast Dixmude - one destroyed.

27 October 1918: south of Ghent - one destroyed.

30 October 1918: Nazareth - two destroyed (one shared with two other pilots)

1 November 1918: Soffeghem - one destroyed.

 

However, the only citation published was "for valuable services rendered in connection with the war".

 

* * * * *

 

CLARK, 2nd Lieutenant Ernest John - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Home in Montreal (surveyor student). Formerly in 6th Canadian Field Ambulance; from CEF to RFC, 25 August 1917; to No.33 Squadron, 12 March 1918; in No.102 Squadron, 14 April 1918 to 12 October 1918, when returned to Home Establishment.

 

A gallant and skilful officer who has rendered valuable service on night bombing and reconnaissance duty. On the night of the 21st/22nd August when reconnoitring a road at a low altitude, he bombed, with great success, fourteen motor transports. On a second flight during the same night he bombed enemy horse transport, destroying eight transport wagons and their teams. Later on, with his last bomb, he obtained a direct hit on two motor lorries.

 

* * * * *

 


CLARK, Lieutenant Joseph William Greig - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Home in Toronto (journalist); from 75th Battalion, CEF to RFC as observer; graded as Flying Officer, 6 April 1917. Served in No.13 Squadron (28 January to 6 April 1917), No.59 Squadron (6-18 April 1917), No.13 Squadron again (18 April to 15 August 1917); to Denham, 14 October 1917; National Archives of Canada RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 notes that at Denham (Buckinghamshire) he was Assistant Instructor; was instructor in Bombs and Compasses, 13 October 1917 to 25 April 1918; took a Wireless Course at Denham in April 1918 before rejoining unit. To No.5 School of Military Aeronautics, 28 February 1918; returned as an observer to No.13 Squadron, 7 May to 23 December 1918; with No.59 Squadron, 23 December 1918 to 18 January 1919. Relinquished commission, 20 January 1919. The son of the editor of Toronto Daily Star (and brother of Greg Clark), he was Director of Public Relations for Canadian Armed Forces during Second World War.

 

On October 5 this officer carried out a very successful shoot, causing a fire and an explosion, and completely destroyed the position. During the shoot he was continuously harassed by eight Fokker biplanes, but exhibiting marked courage and skilful shooting, he drove down one in flames and dispersed the remainder.

 

NOTE: The following, from Air Ministry, gives more details than any standard a citation; he is described as "Flight Commander, No.13 Squadron".

 

On the 5th October [1918], whilst flying with Captain Bailey, carried out a pre-arranged shoot with 274th Siege Battery. He ranged this battery, and the battery went on to fire for effect, obtaining two direct hits on the target and causing a fire on the roadside in the battery position. The 274th Siege Battery put out "T" on completion of shoot, During this time he observed two hostile batteries active. On one of these he carried out a very successful ANF shoot, obtaining a direct hit on No.2 pit. During the fire for effect the whole battery position was demolished, and the observer went MQ as no more pits were visible. He had caused a fire and a series of explosions in the hostile position, which he undoubtedly destroyed. As the visibility had become extremely poor, Captain Clark decided to work from a point above the hostile battery, although there was a patrol of eight Fokker biplanes in the vicinity and there was a strong west wind blowing. The enemy aircraft attacked, but by his gallantry and skill Captain Clark shot down one, which he saw fall out of control and burst into flames on hitting the ground. The remainder of the formation were driven off and Captain Clark then completed the ANF shoot. "L" Battery AA report that they saw a Fokker biplane diving away very steeply from a fight at this time, but owing to poor visibility they did not actually see the machine burning on the ground.

 

The devotion to duty shown by Captain Clark on this occasion when he destroyed two hostile battery positions in spite of his being attacked by a large formation, one machine of which he also destroyed is worthy of the highest praise.

 


On the 28th October, these two officers were detailed to watch and report on progress made by the 57th Division in its advance towards the Canal de l'Escaut. They reconnoitred the area in front of the infantry from a height of 40 [400 ?] feet and discovered that the enemy had withdrawn to the east of the Canal. Realising that the infantry might advance more rapidly, they dropped a message on the advancing men, urging them to press on at once as they would find no opposition. They then returned to the Division and dropped a message informing them of their action. On returning to the infantry they noticed that they were all advancing hurriedly towards the Canal, on reaching which the infantry were enable to seize the crossings, but the enemy had been able to get into the trench line east of the Canal. It is certain that if Captain Bailey and Captain Clark had not shown such skill and resource the enemy would have had time to prevent our infantry from seizing the Canal crossings. Six photographs showed where the crossings were least damaged, and where material was lying which could be used for their repair. The whole reconnaissance was carried out at an average height of 500 feet, and often under very heavy machine gun fire.

 

* * * * *

 

CLAXTON, Lieutenant William Gordon - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918. Born 1 June 1899 in Ogilvie, Manitoba. Home in Toronto; graduated in RFC/Canada; as a 2nd Lieutenant he left Toronto on 29 September 1917; at Training Depot, 29 October 1917; to CFS, Upavon, 30 October 1917; with No.41 Squadron, 26 March to 17 August 1918 (missing, prisoner of war); repatriated 1 December 1918. At Camp Borden for refresher training, on 20 February 1921 he took off in Avro 504K G-CYCI for Toronto. His engine failed and he tried to land on the ice at the south end of Lake Simcoe, striking a ridge which was hard to seem wiping out the undercarriage, and doing other minor damage. Again, on 5 April 1921, Flying Officer Claxton crashed Avro 504K G-CYBS, causing heavy damage to the machine but no injury to himself. Journalist between the wars; served briefly in RCAF, October 1940 to April 1941. Died in Toronto, 28 September 1967.

 

This officer at all times shows fine courage and disregard of danger. He has accounted for six enemy aeroplanes and one kite balloon, three of the aeroplanes being destroyed and three driven down out of control. On a recent occasion, having destroyed a hostile balloon, he pursued an enemy scout ten miles and eventually drove it down; he was the attacked by five enemy triplanes and other scouts, but managed to return to our lines, though his machine was riddled with bullets.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1592 has the original recommendation, drafted on 19 June 1918 by Major Bowman, which is much more detailed.

 

I wish to recommend the above-named officer for the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross.

 

Since joining this squadron on 25 March 1919 he has accounted for six enemy aircraft and one balloon destroyed.

 

On 27 May 1918 he drove an enemy aircraft, Triplane down completely out of control east of Estaires. This enemy aircraft, one of six, was attacking another pilot of the same patrol.

 

On 28 May 1918 he drove down an enemy aircraft, two-seater, completely out of control between Oppy and Gavrelle, after having been driven down himself by five other enemy aircraft, during which combat his cowling came off.


On 12 June 1918 he drove an enemy aircraft, Albatross Scout, down, following it down to 2,000 feet, and forcing it to land in a field near Lignieres, apparently O.K. as it remained right side up. Later, during the same patrol, he drove an enemy aircraft, two-seater, down out of control over Caix. His machine was badly shot about during this combat but before returning he attacked a hostile balloon.

 

On 13 June 1918 he destroyed an enemy aircraft, two-seater D.F.W., which he followed down to 400 feet and observed it crumple up on the ground with smoke issuing from the wreckage. On his way back his engine was hit by machine gun fire from the ground and he was forced to land 700 yards behind the French front line near Guyencourt. He landed the machine quite safely.

 

On 16 June 1918 he destroyed an enemy aircraft, Fokker biplane, which crashed into a valley near Greyvillers, whilst acting as escort to RE.8s. During this combat he was attacked by Triplanes from above and his machine was badly shot about.

 

On 17 June 1918 he destroyed a hostile balloon, it being observed to be lying on the ground with smoke issuing from it. Later during the same patrol and whilst attempting to attack another balloon, he saw a Phalz Scout, which he pursued for about ten miles, and finally destroyed it, observing it to crash into the Bois-de-Vaux, east of Combles. He was then attacked by Triplanes and Fokker biplanes who pursued him on his way back to the line, his emergency tank being pierced and machine badly shot about, but he managed to land safely.

 

Lieutenant Claxton has always shown a wonder disregard for lack of height far over the enemy lines, and on several occasions has been badly shot about from the ground by machine gun fire when returning to our lines.

 

Some details were added and the text edited at the level of 5th Brigade Headquarters on 29 June 1918; the condensed text was still longer than the citation eventually published:

 

For conspicuous gallantry in attacking enemy aircraft and kite balloons.

 

On the morning of June 17th, 1918, while on an offensive patrol, he observed a hostile balloon near Chuignes. Diving upon this, he opened fire, and the balloon went down at once with volumes of smoke issuing from it so that it was destroyed.

 

A short while afterwards, while diving on another balloon, he noticed a hostile scout below him. After chasing this machine ten miles east, firing at it the while, he drove it down, diving vertically, so that it crashed in the Bois-de-Vaux near Combles. He was then attacked by five enemy triplanes and other scouts, but he, however, managed to return to our lines although his machine was riddled with bullets.

 

On June 16th, 1918, he attacked a Fokker biplane, which crashed to its destruction near Greyvillers.


He has in all accounted for six enemy aeroplanes and one kite balloon, three of the aeroplanes being destroyed, and the remaining three being driven down completely out of control. He has at all times shown fine courage and complete disregard for danger.

 

CLAXTON, Lieutenant William Gordon - Bar to Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918.

 

This officer is conspicuous for his courage in attack. Recently in one day he destroyed six enemy aeroplanes - four in the morning and two in the evening. In Thirteen days he accounted for fourteen machines. His utter disregard of danger inspires all who serve with him.

 

CLAXTON, Lieutenant William Gordon - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

Between 4th July and 12th August this officer destroyed ten enemy aeroplanes and one kite balloon, making in all thirty machines and one kite balloon to his credit. Untiring in attack in the air or on the ground, this officer has rendered brilliant service.

 

CLAXTON, Lieutenant William Gordon - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per Haig Despatch dated 8 November 1918.

 

* * * *

 

CLAYDON, Captain Arthur - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918. Born 25 September 1895; home in Winnipeg; served in Canadian Field Artillery and may have been Mentioned in Despatches. To RFC, Reading, 30 October 1916; appointed Flying Officer, 26 May 1917; with No.32 Squadron, 6 September 1917 to 8 July 1918 (missing).

 

Recently this officer, single handed, went to the assistance of another pilot who was attacked by eleven Fokker biplanes and six scouts. By his gallant conduct and skilful maneouvering he not only extricated the pilot but drove down several of the enemy aeroplanes. He has shown great initiative and gallantry in locating, bombing and attacking troops on the ground from low altitudes.

 

* * * * *

 


CLAYTON, Captain Cecil John - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 19 December 1917. Born 4 October 1892; home given variously as Pipestone, Manitoba (probable birthplace) and Victoria (on staff of Daily Colonist). Passed tests at Curtiss School, Toronto, 6 September 1916; to RNAS in Ottawa as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 6 September 1916; as of 18 March 1917 he was at Calshot, under instruction; as at 18 June 1917 and thereafter to end of 1918 at Felixstowe (probably on No.230 Squadron or No.70 Wing flying F.2As). Postwar he was employed by the Canadian Air Board. On 31 July 1922 an F.3 (G-CYBT) engaged in forest fire patrols struck a submerged rock at Pekangekum Lake (northern Ontario), puncturing the hull. The pilot (then Squadron Leader Clayton) ruefully remarked, "The rock which was hit is at least a quarter of a mile from the nearest shore, and the Indians state that it is the only one in that part of the lake close enough to the surface to do any damage." See RCAF file 1021-2-9, "F-3 Boat, G-CYBT, Canadian Air Force", in National Archives of Canada, RG.24, Volume 5074.

 

CLAYTON, Captain Cecil John - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1918.

 

CLAYTON, Captain Cecil John - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. No citation.

 

* * * * *

 

CLEGHORN, Lieutenant (Honorary Captain) William Fulton - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918. Born in Toronto, 8 May 1895; home there (bank clerk); enlisted in RNAS in Ottawa, 16 December 1915, To HMS Conquest, 30 March 1916; injured or wounded, 25 April 1916; to Eastbourne, 26 August 1916; to Dover, 23 February 1917; to Dunkirk, 4 April 1918; to No.218 Squadron, 13 May 1918. Missing, presumed dead, 2 October 1918. A curious advertisement in The Aeroplane, 22 January 1919 asked for information on him, saying he was "last seen by his observer near Roulers, wounded in the leg, being taken to hospital by the Germans."

 

A distinguished and gallant leader of bomb raids, in fifty-nine of which he has been engaged.

 

In his last engagement recently his formation was attacked by a large number of enemy aircraft, but nevertheless, sixty-eight bombs were dropped successfully on the objective, and in the fight which afterwards ensued three enemy aeroplanes were destroyed and five others brought down out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

CLEMENT, Captain Carleton Main - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 May 1917. Born in Toronto, 15 May 1896; educated in Vancouver, Victoria, and University of Toronto. Home in Vancouver; enlisted in 47th Battalion, June 1915; may have also served in 30th Battalion, CEF; gained Royal Aero Club Certificate No.2563 on 16 March 1916; appointed 2nd Lieutenant, RFC, 29 April 1916. Appointed Flying Officer, 16 June 1916. Possible served in No.32 Squadron; joined No.22 Squadron 2 July 1916; appointed Captain, January 1917; served there until 19 August 1917 (killed; aircraft went down out of control over Langemarck. Public Record Office Air 1/1158/204/5/2488 has recommendtion of Brigadier J.H.W. Becke.


For good work, especially in taking photographs of the Army area. This officer was responsible for the taking of nearly all the photographs of the Hindenburg Line in this area.

 

CLEMENT, Captain Carleton Main - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 July 1917. Possibly for operations over Hindenburg Line the previous summer.

 

CLEMENT, Captain Carleton Murray - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1918. No citation. AIR 1/1155/204/5/2441 (MG.40 D.1 Volume 20) has a recommendation which might be for his MC:

 

For consistent gallantry and skill as a leader of Offensive Patrols. He destroyed two hostile machines and in addition shot down five others out of control. The dash, spirit and devotion to duty shown by this officer was of an exceptionally high order.

 

* * * * *

 

*CLIFFORD, Corporal G. (73213) - Meritorious Service Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Listed by Dodds, The Brave Young Wings. Apparently awarded for services in Canada (presumably as part of the RAF training program of 1917-1918) but his personal associations with Canada (i.e. hometown, possible CEF service) is unknown.

 

* * * * *

 

*COATS, Captain John Alexander - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. This name appears in a list of Canadians published by R.V. Dodds (The Brave Young Wings). Canadian ties are much more tenuous. Public Records Office Air 76 indicates he was born 8 September 1892 and that his permanent home was Skelmodie Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant (probation), 2 March 1916; confirmed in rank and graded as Flying Officer, 6 May 1916; Lieutenant, 1 April 1917; Flight Commander and Temporary Captain, 4 May 1917. Served in France on BE-type aircraft; wounded 26 June 1916 but returned to flying. Posted to Canada for instructional duties on uncertain date (but was definitely at Deseronto as of 10 July 1917). Posted from No.82 Canadian Training Squadron to School of Special Flying, 18 September 1918 (although RFC/RAF Canada documents state that he was at that unit as early as June 1918). Although award gave rank as Captain, he appears to have been an Acting Major from 23 September 1918. To No.43 Wing Headquarters, 27 December 1918; from Canada to Home War Establishment, 27 January 1919; to unemployed list, 23 April 1919. No citation other tha "in recognition of distinguished service".

 

* * * * *

 


*COLER, Lieutenant (acting Captain) Eugene Seeley - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Graded as Flying Officer, 24 November 1917. American but listed on 29 October 1917 as 2nd Lieutenant, RFC, sailing from Canada for overseas. In No.11 Squadron, 12 March to 16 September 1918 (wounded).

 

Bold in attack and skilful in manoeuvre, this officer never hesitates to engage the enemy regardless of disparity in numbers. On 13th August when on escort duty, he dived on a formation of twenty enemy aeroplanes. In the engagement that ensued he himself destroyed three and his observer two - making a total of five machines destroyed in the fight; a fine performance reflecting great credit on the officers concerned.

 

* * * * *

 

*COLERIDGE, 2nd Lieutenant Colin Goss (or Toss) - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 June 1918. British officer, home in Snetisham, Norfolk. British officer serving as instructor in RFC/RAF Canada program of 1917-1918. Awarded for "saving life at the risk of his own while in great personal suffering". The following is from Aeroplane, 23 October 1918: "When stationed at Fort Worth, Texas, last February, Mr.Coleridge had gone up with a cadet, to whom he was giving instruction. The cadet pulled the control piller over to hard, and being too near the ground (about 500 feet) for an attempt to right the machine to succeed, it crashed and immediately caught fire. Mr. Coleridge was thrown out with four ribs broken and a severe cut on the head, but he crawled into the burning aeroplane and rescued the cadet, who was strapped in and pinned under some burning wrackage with a broken leg. Mr Coleridge, who ws severely burnt about the face and hands, then dashed loose earth over the cadet 'whose legs were soaked with gasoline and burning badly', and put out the flames." Killed (age 29) in crash as Deseronto, Ontario, 23 July 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

COLES, Captain Eric Morrell - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 5 April 1919. Born in London, 2 December 1895; migrated to Canada, 1909. Home in Vancouver; accepted for RFC and sailed from Halifax, 24 January 1917. Initially a mechanic; commissioned 24 May 1917; with No.57 Squadron, 24 May 1918 to 6 April 1919. Postwar he attended University of British Columbia (engineer). Lost with his wife in a Beechcraft Bonanza, Puget Sound, 12 April 1954.

 

This officer has taken part in over one hundred successful bombing raids, and has carried out most valuable photographic and reconnaissance work. He has also crashed two enemy aircraft. At all times he displays conspicuous gallantry and an utter disregard of danger.

 

* * * * *

 


COLLISHAW, Flight Lieutenant Raymond - Croix de Guerre - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 April 1917. Born 22 November 1893. Educated in Nanaimo. Served in Canadian Fisheries Protection Service as cabin boy, seaman, first officer and mate aboard various vessels, August 1908 to October 1915. Joined RNAS in Ottawa as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 10 January 1916 although same date is assigned to posting to Redcar; to Eastchurch, 16 July 1916; to No.3 (N) Wing, 2 August 1916; confirmed as Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 13 July 1916 with effect from 10 January 1916; to Dunkirk, 1 February 1917; to No.10 (N) Squadron, 26 April 1917; Flight Lieutenant, 3 June 1916; Flight Commander, 2 July 1917; to Seaplane Defence Squadron, 23 November 1917 (after long Canadian leave); Squadron Commander, 2 January 1918; to No.203 Squadron, 1 April 1918. Postwar RAF, rising to Air Vice-Marshal (CB, 4 March 1941). Mentioned in Despatches for services in Iraq, 1920-21 (see Flight, 12 October 1922). Died in Vancouver, 29 September 1976. See his autobiography, Air Command (largely edited by R.V. Dodds). Public Records Office Air 1/74 has a memo dated 14 April 1917 stating that General Nollet, commanding 36 French Army Corps, has presented awards to several members of No.3 (Naval) Squadron; in this instance the intended recipient was unable to attend. Public Records Office Air 1/74 also has communication dated 5 March 1917 from Grand Quartier Generale, Service Aeronautique noting several RNAS personnel cited in Orders of 4 Groupe de Bombardement (the French formation operating with No.3 Wing); citation repeated in Air 1/113/15/39/36; for Collishaw it reads:

 

S'est, a maintes reprises, distingue par sa bravoure en venant au secours d'avions de bombardement au cours le raids a grande distance.

 

COLLISHAW, Flight Lieutenant Raymond - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 24 July 1917.

 

In recognition of his services on various occasions, especially the following:

 

On June 1st, 1917, this officer shot down an Albatross scout in flames.

 

On June 3rd, 1917, he shot down an Albatross scout in flames.

 

On 5th June, 1917, he shot down a two-seater Albatross in flames.

 

On the 6th June, 1917, he shot down two Albatross scouts in flames and killed the pilot in third machine.

 

He has displayed great gallantry and skill in all his combats.

 

COLLISHAW, Flight Lieutenant Raymond - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 August 1917.

 


For conspicuous bravery and skill in consistently leading attacks against hostile aircraft. Since the 10th June, 1917, Flight Lieutenant Collishaw has himself brought down four machines completely out of control and driven down two others with their planes shot away. Whilst on an offensive patrol on the morning of the 15th June, 1917, he forced down a hostile scout in a nose dive. Later, on the same day, he drove down one hostile two-seater machine completely out of control. On the 24th June, 1917, he engaged four enemy scouts, driving one down in a spin and another with two of its planes shot away; the latter machine was seen to crash.

 

COLLISHAW, Acting Flight Commander Raymond - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 December 1917.

 

COLLISHAW, Major Raymond - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918.

 

This officer is an exceptionally capable and efficient squadron commander, under whose leadership the squadron has maintained a high place in the Army Wing. He has carried out numerous solo patrols and led many offensive patrols, on all occasions engaging the enemy with great bravery and fearlessness. Up to date he has accounted for forty-seven enemy machines, twenty-two in the last twelve months.

 

COLLISHAW, Major Raymond - Bar to Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918.

 

A brilliant squadron leader of exceptional daring who has destroyed 51 enemy machines. Early one morning he, with another pilot, attacked an enemy aerodrome. Seeing three machines brought out of a burning hangar, he dived five times, firing bursts at these from a very low altitude, and dropping bombs on the living quarters. He then saw an enemy aeroplane descending over the aerodrome; he attacked it and drove it down in flames. Later, when returning from a reconnaissance of the damaged hangars, he was attacked by three Albatross scouts who pursued him to our lines, when he turned and attacked one, which fell out of control and crashed.

 

COLLISHAW, Major Raymond - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 31 December 1918.

 

COLLISHAW, Major Raymond - Order of St.Anne (White Russian) - award date and authority uncertain.

 

COLLISHAW, Major Raymond - Order of St.Stanislaus (White Russian) - award date and authority uncertain.

 

COLLISHAW, Major Raymond - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 July 1920, for services in Russia.

 

COLLISHAW, S/L Raymond - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 February 1922 (listed in Aeroplane, 18 October 1922), "in recognition of distinguished services in Iraq in 1921."

 


* * * * *

 

COLT, Lieutenant Samuel Porter - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 September 1918. Born 8 October 1890. Home in San Diego, California (civil engineer); worked in Victoria and Prince Albert, 1911 to 1914; served in 8th Battalion, CEF; overseas, April 1915; wounded in France, July 1916; to RNAS overseas, 23 December 1916; Crystal Palace, 21 January 1917; Vendome, 17 February 1917; Cranwell, 4 August 1917; No.2 (N) Wing, 19 October 1917; No.3 (T) Group, 4 December 1918. Instructional duties thereafter until 9 April 1919; not clear when he relinquished his commission.

 

* * * * *

 

COMPTON, Lieutenant Harry Neville - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Born in Winnipeg, 9 April 1899. Home in Rustholm, Vancouver Island (bank clerk); formerly in Canadian Engineers; to RFC, 14 February 1918; with No.23 Squadron, 11 May 1918 to 26 January 1919 (hospitalized). Accountant for various firms between the wars. Served in RCAF, 16 April 1940 to 17 September 1942. No official citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war". However, Memorial of the Great War - Bank of Montreal - 1914-1918 says, "For his general good service and for conspicuous bravery and initiative in bringing down five enemy aeroplanes in combat, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross." Public Record Office Air 1/1592 has a recommendation dated 6 January 1919, emanating from 22 Wing, for appointment to the Order of Michael the Brave, 3rd Class:

 

He has worked persistently and well, having 250 hours service flying to his credit. He has destroyed three enemy machines. In addition, he drove down a Fokker biplane completely out of control on 28th October, and in company with Captain Pearson, drove a D.F.W. down to 800 feet, which crashed near Prisches on November 1st.

 

This was resubmitted on 10 January 1919 by Headquarters, 5 Brigade, Royal Air Force, with slight changes:

 

This officer has worked persistently and well, having 250 hours service flying to his credit. He has destroyed three enemy aircraft, and in addition, he drove down a Fokker biplane completely out of control on October 28th, 1918. He also took part in the destruction of one other enemy aircraft, which crashed near Prisches on November 1st, 1918.

 

* * * * *

 


CONN, Lieutenant Kenneth Burns - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Born in Almonte, Ontario, 11 July 1896; attended University of Toronto; served in CEF; to No.1 School of Military Aeronautics, 15 March 1917; to No.24 Reserve Squadron, 31 March 1917; to No.68 Squadron, 25 April 1917; to No.81 Squadron, 11 June 1917; various training units follow (appear to be a series of attachments); served in No.88 Squadron, 9 March 1918 to 13 January 1919. To Canada on leave, 31 January 1919 but returned to Britain, April 1919 until demobiloized, July 1919. Travel company work between the wars and after Second World War; served in RCAF, 1940-46 as Group Captain and Air Historian.

 

On October 18, when raiding enemy troops in retreat, this officer descended to 300 feet and attacked three companies of infantry with machine gun fire, inflicting casualties. So vigorous was his attack that the troops dispersed. Lieutenant Conn then attacked various other targets, displaying conspicuous skill and initiative.

 

NOTE: RCAF file 1021-3-19 "Avro 504K G-CYAL" (National Archives of Canada, RG.24, Volume 5088) has reports on the crash of this machine on 12 August 1920. F/O Conn was the pilot, F/L W.H. Miller his passenger, and the aircraft suffered engine failure enroute from Toronto to Camp Borden. On this occasion, Conn gave his previous flying times as follows:

 

Maurice Farman Short Horn 2 hours dual, 5 hours solo

Avro 5 " " 250 " "

Bristol Scout - 15 " "

Bristol Fighter - 750 " "

Nieuport two-seater - 20 " "

Nieuport - 5 " "

DH.5 - 10 " "

DH.6 - 8 " "

Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter - 15 " "

Camel - 5 " "

Pup - 25 " "

Martinsyde - 4 " "

 

* * * * *

 

COOKE, Major Ian Alexander Scott - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919 - from Cobourg, Ontario (bank ledger keeper); formerly in army; taken on strength of RAF, 16 October 1918 and to Air Ministry, 14 November 1918. Not clear if award for army or RAF service, although it was reported in Flight of 9 January 1919. No citation other than "in recognition of valuable services rendered in connection with the war".

 

* * * * *

 

COREY, 2nd Lieutenant Irving B. - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Barnston, Quebec (bank clerk); in CEF; joined RFC, 18 October 1917; served in No.103 Squadron, 14 June 1918 to 18 March 1919; flew as observer to Roy E. Dodds from 22 July 1918 to war's end. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".


* * * * *

 

CORSON, 2nd Lieutenant Arthur Leopold - Military Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 January 1918. Home in Welland, Ontario (machinist). RAF List of December 1918 says he is 2nd Lieutenant (A and S) with seniority from 16 August 1918; card says he was Taken on Strength, 29 December 1917; to BEF, 21 September 1918; with No.2 Squadron, 23 September to 2 December 1918; with No.35 Squadron, 3 December 1918 onwards. The evidence as to whether he won the MM with RFC is ambiguous; Air 1/184/15/223/1 includes him on a list of "Canadian officers having won Honours and Awards in flying services."

 

* * * * *

 

COTTON, Lieutenant Henry - Mentioned for Valuable Services in Captivity - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 December 1919. Home in Paris, Ontario; former CEF; seconded to flying services, 27 May 1917 to 6 February 1919; with No.25 Squadron as observer, 22 April to 18 May 1917 (POW). One of several listed in a block of awards to personnel "for gallantry while Prisoners of War in escaping or attempting to escape from captivity, or for valuable services rendered in the Prison Camps of the enemy." Listed as being from a "Quebec Regiment", he may or may not have been confused with a "Cotton" reported in DHist cards, shown as from Cowansville, Quebec, ex-5th Canadian Mounted Rifles, attached RFC 12 August 1916.

 

* * * * *

 

CRABB, Lieutenant Earl Frederick - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Home in Chatham, Ontario (Strathroy after war, where DFC sent in 1921). Headquarters, Training Depot, 7 January 1918; served in No.92 Squadron, 3 July 1918 to 7 March 1919.

 

A scout pilot of high merit; he is fearless and skilful. On October 27th, having himself crashed an enemy machine, he went to the assistance of one of our own that was being attacked, and materially helped to shoot the enemy down. In addition to the foregoing, he has accounted for three other machines and assisted in crashing a fourth.

 

NOTE: The following article appeared in the Sault Daily Star (Sault Ste.Marie, Ontario), 5 July 1967:

 

AIR ACE RECALLS HIS "KILL"

 

Farmingdale, Maine (AP) In 1918, barely turned 19, Canadian-born Earl F. Crabb of Farmingdale was in the air over France tangling with the famed "circus" of Baron von Richthofen, Germany's "Red Baron".

 


As a flyer in the old Royal Flying Corps, Crabb went on to shoot down five German planes and become an "ace". Later he became the Maine forestry department's first pilot, serving 29 years. At 68 he's still an active flying instructor and holds the oldest federal pilot's license in the state.

 

Crabb, born near Delhi, Ontario, remembers his first "kill" well. He had been overseas only two weeks when it happened - on his first training flight over enemy lines. He was in a British made single seat SE.5, equipped with twin machine guns.

 

"We were attacked by a formation of German fighters. I engaged with one German and fought him down from 8,000 to 1,000 feet, then lost sight of him." He learned later that a plane with his markings had shot the German down.

 

Crabb said his squadron duelled "at least four times" with Richthofen's distinctively marked "circus" and broke about even with the fast Fokker D-7s.

 

"We were competing. There was pretty good spirit between the two sides. There were a few who hated the Germans but I guess we thought of them as fanatics".

 

Crabb enlisted in Chatham, Ontario in June 1917 as an RFC cadet and went to France in April 1918.He left the corps a captain with the Distinguished Flying Cross.

 

Crabb came to the United States in 1921. "When I returned from the war there was no flying in Canada", he explained. Barnstorming attracted him to the States. He covered much of the country and came to Maine in 1929, where he was soon hired by the forestry department.

 

"At that time the forestry department had the only state plane, so I got to fly all the dignitaries around," he said. But Crabb's military flying days weren't over. In 1942, at 43, he joined the U.S. Air Force and flew a C-45 as an air inspector for the western technology training command for three years. He was discharged a major.

 

His two sons followed in his footsteps. One was a navigator in the Second World War and another flew transports and helicopters during the Korean War.

 

Recently, marking his 50th year as an aviator, Crabb was honoured at a meeting of the Maine Aviation Council and received plaques marking his services to the British Commonwealth, the United States and the state of Maine. He was given a letter of appreciation from Governor Kenneth M. Curtis, an engraved silver stein from the RCAF and a painting of his First World War SE.5.

 

* * * * *

 


CRAIG, Lieutenant William Benson - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 2 August 1895; home in Smith Falls, Ontario (teacher); served in 75th Battalion, Canadian Field Artillery, January to October 1917; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in RNAS, Ottawa, 5 October 1917; to Manston, 4 May 1918; to Dunkirk, 13 May 1918; with No.204 Squadron, 26 May to 26 September 1918 (killed in action).

 

Whilst acting temporarily as flight leader one day last month he personally destroyed three enemy machines, and the remainder of his flight accounted for three more. Lieutenant Craig has been engaged in numerous air battles, and always displays fine spirit, ability and determination in carrying out his duties. He has personally brought down two enemy machines completely out of control, in addition to those referred to above.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has recommendation dated 18 September 1918 which adds some details:

 

Has completely destroyed three enemy machines and driven two more down absolutely out of control; has had several indecisive combats. His Flight Commander speaks very highly of his grit and determination, and he proved a capable flight commander when called upon for such duty. On the 16th September 1918 he led a formation which destroyed or drove down six Huns of which Lieutenant Craig got three.

 

* * * * *

 

CRANG, Lieutenant James Goulding - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Toronto (engineering student); direct entrant to RFC in Canada, appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation), 19 October 1916; to No.2 School of Aeronautics, 20 October 1916; with No.70 Squadron, 12 April to 22 August 1917; to Home Establishment, 22 August 1917; with No.3 AAP (Aircraft Park ?), 7 November 1918. No citation other than "in recognition of valuable flying services."

 

* * * * *

 

CRICHTON, 2nd Lieutenant Charles Albert - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919; previously listed in Belgian Army Daily Orders of 21 May 1919 (Public Record Office Air 1/1839/204/208/20). From CEF; served in No.70 Squadron. Missing in November 1918. No citation other than "for valuable services rendered in connection with the war".

 

* * * * *

 


CRITCHLEY, Brigadier Arthur Cecil, DSO - Companion, Order of St.Michael and St.George - awarded as per London Gazette dated 29 March 1919. Born 23 February 1890. Home in Winnipeg; formerly in Lord Strathcona Horse; awarded DSO for services with them, London Gazette dated 3 June 1916; seconded to RFC, 4 March 1918, commanding Cadet Brigade, RAF. Career officer in RAF; awarded CBE as per London Gazette dated 2 June 1943.

 

* * * * *

 

CRODEN, Lieutenant (later Captain) James Eric - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in London, Ontario (student); graded as Flying Officer, 6 October 1917; served in No.9 Squadron, 10 December 1917 to 13 November 1918 when posted to Home Establishment; to No.2 (Canadian) Squadron, 3 December 1918.

 

During recent operations this officer has displayed conspicuous courage and devotion to duty in attacking from low altitudes enemy troops and transport with machine-gun fire. He has also rendered valuable service on reconnaissance duty.

 

* * * * *

 

CROIL, Major George Mitchell - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, June 1893; family moved to Montreal when he was eleven. Schooled in Scotland, then worked in Ceylon; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (Temporary Captain), 24 July 1916 in Gordon Highlanders; in No.47 Squadron, September 1916 to July 1917, after which instructed in Egypt. According to Roundel, June 1959, while on flying training duties he often served as pilot on missions supporting Lawrence of Arabia. Career RCAF officer; awarded CBE as per Canada Gazette dated 9 January 1943. There are many 1917 Combat Reports filed by him while a fighter pilot with No.47 Squadron (MG.40 D.1 Volume 34). See Air Command data base for Second World War awards.

 

CROIL, Major George Mitchell - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. As of 16 October 1999 no specific recommendation for his AFC has been found. However, Public Record Office Air 1/2054/206/409/13 has a recommendation for a Military Cross which was submitted by the Officer Commanding, 32 Training Wing to Headquarters, Training Brigade, Royal Flying Corps, Middle East on 22 February 1918. As an MC was not granted, it is logical to assume that the recommendation was at least a first step in a process leading to the AFC. The document itself is inconsistent in that on one page it refers to him as being in No.58 Training Squadron while on another it mentions No.57 Training Squadron. At the time he was a Captain. 2nd Lieutenant Francis Seymour Vaughan (Royal West Kent Regiment and Royal Flying Corps) was also recommended for a Mention in Despatches "For consistent good work in a Training Squadron and for assisting Captain Croil on the two above-mentioned occasions" (see text below).

 

For consistent devotion to duty whilst Flight Commander in a Training Squadron, and for determination on two occasions:-

 


6 December 1917. When, on information being received that a pilot had got lost on the way to Akaba from Suez where he had been sent to conduct Major Lawrence back to Suez by air, Captain Croil set out in search of this officer and duly arrived at Akaba - made repeated searches for the missing pilot and machine, and finally on 6 December 1917 flew Major Lawrence back to Suez, searching and landing to inquire on the way.

 

23 December 1917. When a party organized by Captain G.M. Croil set out to search for a machine which had been reported as missing on a flight between Suez and Akaba. One of the machines of the search party having had engine failure, landed in the desert about half-way between Suez and Akaba. Captain Croil showed great resource in flying out himself in a high wind and sandstorm and conducting three other machines carrying mechanics and a large number of spares, tools, and fuel for the disabled machine; landing these beside the disabled machine, which enabled repairs to be carried out, and safely conducting back the three machines under the greatest difficulties against a gale of wind with much sand blowing and obscuring he whole countryside, and seeing them safely landed. As the only two available pilots for two of the machines were pupils, Captain Croil had to fly behind and keep them on the right compass course. In doing this he showed great skill. The journey, which should occupy about an hour, took three hours owing to the gale. Owing to his actions the disabled machine, which would otherwise probably have been lost, was saved and brought in later.

 

* * * * *

 

CRONIN, Lieutenant Edward John - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 April 1920 - Born 14 April 1892 in Saint John, New Brunswick; home there (merchant); formerly in 25th Battalion, CEF; to No.1 School of Military Aeronautics, 4 August 1917; to Egypt, 8 January 1918; graded as Flying Officer, 12 February 1918; admitted to 19th General Hospital, Alexandria, 5 July 1918; to AOS, 31 July 1918; embarked 13 September 1918; to No.17 Squadron, 17 September 1918; to No.47 Squadron, 20 April 1919.

 

Has taken part in 80 raids on enemy territory, displaying great ability and gallantry. On July 17, 1919, at Kamyshin (Volga), he carried out an important reconnaissance with great skill and daring, flying as low as 500 feet at a critical time. Lieutenant Cronin previously rendered gallant service during the Bulgarian retreat in the autumn of 1918.

 

NOTE: DHist cards include Collishaw's recommendation from Air 1/1957/294/260/12:

 


This officer has been continually on active service since September 1917 [sic] flying on the Salonika front. He has carried out 80 special missions and bomb raids against the enemy with the greatest determination and devotion to duty. During the final attack from Salonika and Serbia Lieutenant Cronin with great skill and gallantry succeeded in observing large enemy reinforcements assembling. He reported them at once our army out manoeuvred causing as general retirement [something seems to be omitted here] leading finally to the Bulgarian surrender. This officer was selected to convey despatches of greatest importance by aeroplane to the army commander operating in this area announcing the Bulgarian armistice. Lieutenant Cronin has a forced landing about 150 miles from his objective but conveyed his despatches by hand in a remarkable time with great determination and devotion to duty. Since June 1919 Lieutenant Cronin has served with the Caucasian Army on the Volga River. He has carried out about 45 special missions and bomb raids. Throughout all these operations he has continued to fly with conspicuous gallantry in the face of the enemy. He is an exceptional officer.

 

* * * * *

 

*CRONYN, Captain R.H. - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). For services in Canada (Officer Commanding, No.93 Canadian Training Squadron, Camp Borden).

 

* * * * *

 

CROSS, Captain Alfred Richard - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Home in Regina; joined No.4 Squadron from No.1 ASD, 4 November 1917; joined No.15 Squadron, 21 November 1917

 

During recent operations this officer has carried out many successful reconnaissances at low altitudes bringing back valuable and reliable information. On four successive days in August he carried out contact patrols; on each occasion, with fine disregard for personal danger, he deliberately drew hostile fire in order to locate with certainty the position of the enemy.

 

NOTE: Further Air Ministry accounts state:

 

...on one occasion received a direct hit from a shell, and was forced to descend in a wood within one hour of his schedule time to land. He handed in a most valuable report to the Branch Intelligence Officer of the squadron, having returned on foot. On another occasion he saw the German infantry were holding up the attack on Transloy Village, and, by repeated attacks with machine gun from the air, he succeeded in compelling them to retire, and by directing artillery fire on them caused many casualties.

 

* * * * *

 

*CROYDON, Lieutenant C.J.C. - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). For services in Canada; Paymaster, RAF Headquarters, Toronto.


* * * * *

 

CULLEY, Lieutenant Stuart Douglas - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918 - Royal Air Force (Sea Patrol). Born 23 August 1895 in Omaha, Nebraska of English father and Canadian mother; educated in California and Vermont; summer home was Dixie, Quebec; joined RNAS in Ottawa, 19 April 1917; in UK 21 May 1917; at Calshot, 10 November 1917; at Falmouth, 23 February 1918; to Felixstowe in autumn of 1918.

 

Ascended to a height of 19,000 feet, at which altitude he attacked an enemy airship, and brought it down in flames completely destroyed. This was a most difficult undertaking involving great personal risk, and the highest praise is due to Lieutenant Culley for the gallantry and skill he displayed.

 

CULLEY, Lieutenant Stuart Douglas - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919.

 

CULLEY, Lieutenant Stuart Douglas - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 July 1920 with effect from 31 March 1920 for services in the Baltic.

 

* * * * *

 

CURTIS, Captain Graham Waters - Bronze Medal for Military Valour (Italy) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Westmount, Quebec (industrial agent); appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation) in Canada, 21 November 19916; sailed from Halifax, 14 November 1916 (this information is contradictory); to No.84 Squadron, 20 March 1917; to No.62 Squadron, 14 June 1917; to No.39 Squadron, 31 May 1918; to Headquarters, 21st Wing, 4 June 1918; to 14th Wing, No.139 Squadron, 6 July 1918. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered."

 

* * * * *

 

CURTIS, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Wilfred Austin - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 19 December 1917. Born 21 August 1893; home in Toronto; trained at Curtiss School in Toronto, 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in RNAS in Ottawa, 11 August 1916. At Crystal Palace, 17 September 1916; at Cranwell, 14 October 1916; with No.12 (N) Squadron, 6-25 June 1917; with No.6 (N) Squadron, 25 June to 28 August 1917; with No.10 (N) Squadron, 28 August 1917 to 26 February 1918. Later Chief of Air Staff, RCAF (1947-1953); awarded CBE, 5 June 1943; awarded CB, 15 June 1946; created Officer, Order of Canada, 15 July 1967. See Air Command data base for Second World War awards. Died 7 August 1977; see Winter 1977 issue of Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society for obituary and brief biography.

 


For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has on many occasions destroyed and driven down out of control enemy machines. On the 21st October, 1917, in a combined attack with two other pilots, he sent down an enemy machine in flames, and twenty minutes later he followed another enemy scout from 10,000 to 2,000 feet, and sent it down in a vertical dive which ended in a crash.

 

CURTIS, Flight Lieutenant Wilfred Austin - Bar to Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 March 1918.

 

For continuous skill and courage as a fighting pilot. On the 23rd January 1918, whilst on offensive patrol, he followed three two-seater enemy machines and an enemy scout through the clouds. The enemy were then joined by five other scouts. He dived and fired into an enemy two-seater from about 40 feet behind. The enemy machine fell over on its side and started to spin, and was observed by another pilot to break up in the air while spinning down.

 

Since the award of the Distinguished Service Cross this officer has destroyed several enemy machines and driven down others absolutely out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

CUTHBERT, Lieutenant Cuthbert Ross - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Formerly Royal Horse Artillery; joined No.12 Squadron on 14 November 1917 as Observer on Probation. Later seems to have trained as pilot.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. While on contact patrol he and his observer, noticing the enemy massing for an attack, sent down the call to open fire, which was answered, with the result that the enemy were driven back to their trenches. This was done on two later occasions, and finally the enemy were repulsed with heavy casualties. A hostile two-seater plane was then attacked, with the result that the latter dived very steeply, with smoke issuing from it. His consistent gallantry and good work have proved invaluable.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation sent from Headquarters, 3rd Brigade, Royal Air Force to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 1 April 1918, for work performed with No.12 Squadron.

 

For consistent gallantry and good work during the recent operations, March 21st to March 31st, 1918.

 

Lieutenant Cuthbert, with 2nd Lieutenant Hanman as pilot, has shown the greatest gallantry and skill during the recent battle. They have together completed many successful contact patrols at a very low altitude under heavy fire from rifles and machine guns,

 


On March 24th, while on contact patrol over St.Leger and flying at 500 feet, they observed the enemy massing for an attack. An SOS call was sent, which was answered, and the enemy were driven back into their trenches. Ten minutes later another concentration was seen, and another SOS call sent with the same result; 15 minutes later the enemy massed again and another SOS call was sent, and the enemy heavily engaged by our artillery. They were dispersed with heavy casualties. Both pilot and observer attacked these troops with machine gun fire from 500 feet, entirely breaking up the enemy attack, which never reached our trenches.

 

Lieutenant Cuthbert and 2nd Lieutenant Hanman then attacked an enemy two-seater which appeared, apparently to do contact patrol with the enemy. After a good burst from Lieutenant Cuthbert's gun the enemy aeroplane dived very steeply, with smoke issuing from the fuselage. He was followed down to 50 feet, and was then lost sight of in the mist, and is believed to have crashed near Croisilles.

 

* * * * *

 

DACOSTA, Captain William Raymond Campbell - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Born in Barbadoes, 1 August 1891; home in Toronto (surveyor); served in Canadian Field Artilery; direct entrant in RFC, Canada, 20 November 1915; served in No.22 Squadron, 12 May to 23 October 1916; to Canada and No.88 Canadian Reserve Squadron, 16 April 1917; to England, 12 June 1918 for administrative duties.

 

* * * * *

 

DARLEY, Flight Lieutenant Cecil Hill - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 13 August 1917. Born 23 April 1889 in Shropshire; living in Montreal as engineer on outbreak of war. Passed tests at Curtiss School, Toronto, 1 September 1915; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa that day; to sail on Corinthian from Montreal, 19 September 1916. Killed 28 September 1919 Near Lake Bracciano, flying London to Cairo; hit tree on take-off; aircraft caught fire.

 

For conspicuous skill and gallantry on the night of the 2nd July 1917. One of his engines having seized whilst he was over Bruges, he dropped his bombs on the objective and managed to fly his machine home on one engine and effected a safe landing on the aerodrome.

 

NOTE: For information on a subsequent raid, see F.R. Johnson.

 

DARLEY, Captain Cecil Hill - Bar to Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 17 April 1918. Serving with No.14 (N) Squadron, Dunkirk at the time. No citation on DHist cards.

 


For zeal and determination in carrying out numerous night bombing raids on enemy aerodromes, docks, etc. On the night of February 18th-19th, 1918, he carried out two attacks on the St.Denis Westrem aerodrome.

 

NOTE: File Air 1/638/17/122/174 (National Archives MG.40 D.1 Volume 12) identifies unit and gives following recommendation dated 20 February 1918; raid in question was on Handley-Page 3129:

 

On the night of 18th/19th February, this officer carried out two bombing attacks on St.Denis Westrem aerodrome, this being the longest double trip successfully performed up to date by any of our aeroplanes. Since the award of the Distinguished Service Cross this officer has carried out thirty more night bombing raids.

 

DARLEY, Captain Cecil Hill - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 July 1918; citation in issue of 3 August 1918. The following citation is from an advance copy of the London Gazette for that date, found in RG.9 III C.14 Volume 4608.

 

An officer with a fine record of gallantry to his credit.

 

During the past two years he has been flying in active operations, twelve months of which was on night flying bombing work, being on one occasion in the air in bad weather for 7 1/2 hours.

 

On several occasions he has carried out two raids on the same night, and during the past month he successfully attacked a very formidable enemy position from a height of 200 feet in the face of very intense fire.

 

* * * * *

 

*DAVIDSON, Captain Donald Alastair Leslie - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1916; citation published in London Gazette dated 27 July 1916. Born 1891; educated in England and page of honour to Edward VII, 1902-1907. Studied at McGill University (mechanics or engineering), 1908-1911 and worked in the Far East in the employ of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Obtained Royal Aero Club Certificate No.1201, 30 April 1915. Appointed Flying Officer and 2nd Lieutenant, 22 July 1915. Posted to Egypt and Mesopotamia; on 26 April 1916, flying an unarmed BE.2c, badly wounded in a fight with a Fokker while dropping supplies to besieged Kut (The War in the Air, Volume V, p.280); awarded Military Cross as a result. Invalided to England; killed in action 30 April 1917. Most information from Aeroplane, 30 May 1917.

 


For conspicuous gallantry and determination. When attacked by an enemy fighting scout his machine was heavily damaged, the controls being shot away, and he himself being wounded in three places. He succeeded, however, with great skill in reaching his aerodrome and landing safely, after which he had to be lifted out and carried to hospital.

 

* * * * *

 

DAVIES, Lieutenant David William - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919, previously listed in Belgian Army Daily Orders of 21 May 1919 (Public Record Office Air 1/1839/204/208/20). Born 10 May 1893; home in Victoria (salesman); accepted as RNAS candidate, 18 September 1917; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Ottawa, 5 October 1917; to No.217 Squadron (from Manston), 21 May 1918; still there on 5 November 1918; with No.233 Squadron, Dover, March 1919.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has recommendation for this award from No.217 Squadron and dated 7 January 1919, "for services during the Battle of Flanders, between the dates September 28th and November 11th, 1918."

 

This officer carried out 14 bomb raids and one special mission during the battle. He displayed great courage and determination, dropping his bombs from low altitudes. On one occasion he was shot down by machine-gun fire from the ground, but landed his machine safely.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has recommendation for a Mention in Despatches. Period of service covered commenced 21 May 1918 (date of document not evident) and covered 135 days of actual flying; unit was No.217 Squadron:

 

A very keen and reliable pilot. He has carried out 24 bomb raids and 33 anti-submarine patrols. He has accounted for two enemy aircraft. On many occasions he has descended to very low altitudes to attack enemy destroyers and trenches.

 

* * * * *

 

DAVIES, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Francis James - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. In CEF (Canadian Pioneers); gazetted in RFC, 11 July 1917; acting Captain, 9 June 1918. In No.29 Squadron during 1918; possibly wounded on 12 August 1918.

 

During recent operations this officer has accounted for five enemy aeroplanes. Bold in attack and skilful in manoeuvre, he is a valuable airman who sets a fine example to all.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation forwarded by Headquarters, 2nd Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force on 24 July 1918.

 


On the 19 May 1918 whilst on offensive patrol south of Bailleul, his formation was attacked by nine enemy scouts. Captain Davies shot down one scout which crashed near La Creche.

 

On the 30 May 1918 when on Wireless Intercepting duty, Captain Davies was attacked by Albatross scouts over Armentieres; he engaged one whose left wing crumpled up.

 

On the 18 June 1918 he attacked a two-seater over Merville; this machine fell into some trees east of La Gorgue.

 

On the 4 July 1918 when on Wireless Interception duty, Captain Davies saw a Rumpler two-seater engaged by anti-aircraft at 10,000 feet over Cassel. He climbed towards the lines in order to cut it off, and when over Armentieres he opened fire at 100 yards. This machine crashed near Armentieres.

 

On the 14 July 1918 when on offensive patrol, he engaged a two-seater Halberstadt south of Bailleul; the machine burst into flames and fell northwest of Bailleul.

 

* * * * *

 

**DAVIS, Lieutenant Harold George - Croix de Guerre avec Etoile en Vermeil (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 October 1919. Blatherwick provides name; Canadian connection to be checked. No card at DHist, not in Jackson List.

 

* * * * *

 

DAVISON, 2nd Lieutenant Hiram Frank - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Home in Forfar, Ontario (financial estate broker); with No.22 Squadron, 15 November 1917 to 13 April 1918 (wounded); citation in Aeroplane, 3 July 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. During four days' operations he destroyed two enemy aeroplanes and drove down two out of control, while his observer destroyed one and drove down another out of control. He also assisted other members of his squadron in destroying enemy machines. He showed splendid courage and leadership and set an excellent example to his comrades.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has the recommendation as sent from Headquarters, 3rd Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force on 6 April 1918:

 


For skill and gallantry. During recent operations between March 25th and March 29th, 1918, this officer destroyed two enemy aircraft, one crashing at Hangard, and the other falling in flames at Montauban. He also drove two enemy aeroplanes down out of control, one at Havrincourt and the other at Albert. During the same period he manoeuvred his machine so that his observer crashed one enemy aircraft at Albert and drove another down out of control at Hangard.

 

In addition to inflicting losses on the enemy, this officer has been the means of enabling other members of his formation to destroy enemy aircraft. On many occasions he as turned back to help other members of his squadron when they have been in trouble, and in this way has helped to save pilots and machines which might have been lost.

 

2nd Lieutenant Davison has proved himself keen and reliable, and has always set an excellent example to the other officers of his squadron.

 

Up to date he has destroyed five enemy aircraft and driven five others down out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

DAWES, Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Richard Jeffrey - Distinguished Flying Cross - effective 26 June 1918; awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Mother in Montreal; joined RFC in Canada, posted to England (sailing from Halifax, 24 January 1917). With No.45 Squadron, 22 August 1917 to 19 April 1918; No.28 Squadron, 19 April to 26 May 1918; No.45 Squadron again, 26 May to 29 July 1918. Appointed Flight Commander and Acting Captain, 1 June 1918. To Home Establishment, 29 July 1918.

 

During recent operations this officer has destroyed six enemy aeroplanes. A very gallant and courageous officer.

 

* * * * *

 


DE DOMBASLE, Lieutenant-Colonel Guy C. St.G - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Born in Calcutta, 1883; joined Gloucester Regiment and served in South Africa. In Canada at outbreak of war and joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Detached from Royal Canadian Regiment to RFC, December 1915; appointed Flying Officer (Observer), 15 February 1916; with No.44 Reserve Squadron, 16 May 1916; to No.27 Squadron, 20 October 1916; commanded No.1 Squadron, December 1916 to early 1917; appointed Squadron Commander (Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) as Commandant, School of Military Aeronautics, August 1917. In 1920 appointed to command No.8 Wing (Marske) and the to Group Headquarters, Kenley. July 1922, posted to Headquarters Iraq Command (Air Staff duties). From October 1923 to December 1924 on staff of Station Hinaidi. Commanded Station Northolt, January 1925 to August 1927; appointed Inspector of Recruiting, RAF. Died in a nursing home, 7 July 1929. Charles Grey, in the obituary notice published in The Aeroplane (10 July 1929) wrote, "Wing Commander de Dombasle, though not a young man, was one of the finest players of Lawn Tennis in the RAF. He never won a championship, but he was always there or thereabouts. He was a fine all-round sportsman and won the affection and respect of all who served under or with him."

 

* * * * *

 

DE PENCIER, Lieutenant (Acting Captain) John Dartnell - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Home in Vancouver (student); sent overseas as a Gunner, Canadian Field Artillery, December 1916; to RFC Cadet Wing, Denham, 7 April 1917; commissioned 20 June 1917; with No.19 Squadron, 6 October to 22 November 1917 and 2 December 1917 to 8 August 1918; wounded 22/23 November and 5 December 1917; to Home Establishment, 8 August 1918; at No.29 Training Depot Station as of 7 November 1918. Killed in flying accident near Cologne, 18 May 1920.

 

* * * * *

 

**DEAN, Lieutenant George Edward Morgan - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919 and Canada Gazette dated 5 July 1919. Listed in Dodds, The Brave Young Wings, and identified as being a member of the Canadian Field Artillery. RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 has a sheet for Lieutenant George Morgan Dean, Canadian Field Artillery (born 1 April 1885), Canadian Field Artillery, attached to RFC as a Balloon Officer, 1 April 1917; to No.30 Balloon Squadron, 24 April 1917; injured 12 January 1918; employed thereafter in balloon training; relinquished commission 30 December 1918. The National Archives record does not mention any award. No further details or corroborative information as of 30 January 1998. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".

 

* * * * *

 

DELAMERE, Flight Lieutenant Rudolph Dawson - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 February 1918. Born 10 June 1891 in Toronto; home there; attended University of Toronto (degree in Applied Science and Engineering). Passed tests at Curtiss School, 30 July 1915; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in RNAS, 30 July 1915; sailed on Corinthean, 6 August 1915; arrived UK, 26 August 1915; to East Africa, 7 February 1916; to "Hysainth" {?}, 7 April 1916; to No.231 Squadron, 27 October 1918; repatriated 2 April 1919. In a letter to Collishaw, 4 May 1964 he described his movements in Africa as with No.4 (N) Squadron (Cull), No.7 (N) Squadron (Nanson) and No.8 (N) Squadron (Bowhill) - the last also called No.8 Seaplane Squadron, Zanzibar.

 

In recognition of the gallantry and devotion to duty shown by him in carrying out reconnaissance, bombing and photographic flights during the military operations in the Lindi (East Africa) area.

 

* * * * *


DELHAYE, Captain Roger Amedee - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Born in Chalons, France, 9 January 1891. Home in Brandon, Manitoba (law student); appointed 2ns Lieutenant (on probation) in RFC, Canada, 31 January 1916; appointed Flying Officer, 21 June 1916; at 5th Reserve Squadron, 28 April 1916; with No.13 Squadron, 2 July 1916 to 18 May 1917; to No.1 School of Aerial Fighting, 15 April 1918. With No.19 Squadron, 3 May to 2 October 1918. Served in wartime RCAF (killed in flying accident).

 

A most efficient fighting leader to whose example the high standard of efficiency attained by his squadron is largely due. He has led numerous offensive patrols, accounting personally for eight enemy machines. On all occasions he has shown high courage, ability and fine leadership.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation passed on 30 September 1918 from Headquarters, 1st Brigade, Royal Air Force to Headquarters, Royal Air Force.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He is a fine example of an efficient fighting leader, and has done much to stimulate and maintain the high standard of his squadron as a fighting unit. He has led numerous Offensive Patrols into action and on all occasions has shown ability, determination and the real offensive spirit. He has personally accounted for enemy aeroplanes as follows.

 

On 27 September 1918, while on Offensive Patrol near Haynecourt a formation of enemy scouts was encountered. He attacked a Pfalz Scout which fell out of control and was seen to crash. Later in the day when on Offensive Patrol in the vicinity of Aubigny-au-Bac he dived on a Pfalz Scout which was attempting to attack a DH.4. He fired a good burst from both guns and the enemy aeroplane fell completely out of control.

 

On 16 September 1918, when on Offensive Patrol north of Lille, eight enemy machines were engaged at 18,000 feet. He outmanoeuvred a Pfalz Scout which had obtained a position on his tail, and fired a long burst into it. Enemy aeroplane burst into flames and went down. Confirmed by another pilot on patrol.

 

On 4 July 1918, when on Offensive Patrol in the vicinity of Esterelles he attacked a Pfalz Scout and fired long bursts from both guns; enemy aeroplane burst into flames and fell in a nose dive.

 

On 16 July 1918, when flying alone at 17,000 feet over Armentieres, he attacked the last machine of a formation of Pfalz Scouts. He fired five bursts into it and enemy aeroplane spun down completely out of control; he could not watch it crash as he was then engaged by another of the formation. He fired about 200 rounds into this enemy aeroplane and saw its left-hand bottom plane fall off. The enemy machine fell completely out of control and was most certainly destroyed.

 

In addition to the above, he has shot down two other enemy machines out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

DENNIS, 2nd Lieutenant James Gordon - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1919 - home in Toronto. Serving in No.99 Squadron.

 

On a recent bombing raid this officer was engaged in a formation which was attacked by twenty of the enemy and in the ensuing fight he was severely wounded. He at once signalled to his observer to take charge of the machine, but the observer had also been wounded and was unable to comply. Lieutenant Dennis decided that his duty demanded that he should remain with his formation to the end of the battle, and this he did, notwithstanding the loss of blood from his wounds. He succeeded in bringing his machine back to our lines - a distance of over forty miles - a feat which surprised his commanding officer.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1650 has three documents which bear upon this officer. The first is a letter dated 14 September 1918 from Lieutenant-Colonel H.E. Monroe (Officer Commanding, No.8 Canadian Stationary Hospital) to Major Pattinson, Commanding Officer, No.99 Squadron:

 

Lieutenant James Dennis, a pilot from your squadron, was admitted today severely wounded in the back and abdomen, his intestines were perforated in many places, and his abdominal cavity contained a large amount of free blood.

 

This officer must have shown great determination and must possess great powers of endurance, in that he was able to handle his machine and land safely at the drome after being wounded over Metz, as I understand was the case.

 

It is too early to state, as yet, whether he will recover, but it is hoped that he will. He has been reported as a "dangerously ill" case.

 

I thought that his case required special notice, and that you might appreciate this notice regarding his condition.

 

The next was a letter dated 15 September 1918 from the Lieutenant-Colonel who commanded No.41 Wing (name illegible but may be "Baldwin") to Headquarters, 8th Brigade, Royal Air Force:

 

I have the honour to bring to your notice the name of 2nd Lieutenant James Gordon Dennis, Royal Air Force, pilot, No.99 Squadron.

 

On 14th instant when on a bomb raid to Metz-Sablons the formation in which he was flying was attacked by 18-20 enemy aeroplanes near Metz, and a very severe combat ensued, in which he was severely wounded, and his observer was also slightly wounded.

 

He brought his machine back to the aerodrome, a distance of about 35 miles, and made an excellent landing. Owing to the wonderful endurance which he displayed in keeping his place well in formation when over the lines, and landing his machine without damage, he undoubtedly saved his observer's life. This officer's own condition is, I understand, very critical.

 

I attach a letter from Officer Commanding No.8 Canadian Stationary Hospital as evidence of the wonderful determination shown by this officer.

 

The Officer Commanding squadron personally saw him land and assumed that no one was seriously hurt on the machine as the observer was moving about and the machine landed perfectly satisfactorily.

 

Shortly after being hit this officer signed to his observer to put his stick in and take control, but the observer intimated that he had been hit in the leg and could not take control.

 

This officer has taken part in the following raids:

 

Arnaville Junction 13 September 1918

Metz-Sablons 14 September 1918

 

Finally, on 17 September 1918, 8th Brigade Headquarters forwarded a formal recommendation to Headquarters, Royal Air Force:

 

For conspicuous gallantry and determination as a pilot on the following occasion:-

 

14 September 1918 - Metz Sablon

 

On this occasion the formation in which Lieutenant Dennis was flying was attacked by 20 enemy aeroplanes near Metz and, in the course of the very severe fighting which ensued, Lieutenant Dennis was very severely wounded and his observer slightly wounded. In spite of his wounds, and the consequent loss of blood, Lieutenant Dennis by a magnificent display of endurance and courage maintained his place in the formation when over the lines, and succeeded in bringing his machine back to the aerodrome, a distance of upwards of 40 miles, and in making a perfect landing. In accomplishing this he undoubtedly saved his observer's life.

 

The Officer Commanding, No.99 Squadron, personally saw Lieutenant Dennis land and was exceedingly surprised to find that he was seriously wounded as the observer was moving about and the machine made a perfectly satisfactory landing.

 

Shortly after being hit, Lieutenant Dennis signed to his observer to put his stick in and take control, but as the observer had been hit in the leg he was unable to do this and the full responsibility of flying the machine back and landing therefore devolved on Lieutenant Dennis.

 

In addition Lieutenant Dennis has taken part in the following raids:

 

13 September 1918 - Arnaville Junction

 

* * * * *

 

DEREMO, 2nd Lieutenant John Carlos - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Formerly in CEF; home in Toronto (student) - Mentioned in Despatches, June 1917 (probably for CEF service); with No.15 Squadron, 23 May to 18 November 1918; hospitalized for two days; rejoined No.15 Squadron, 20 November 1918 to 2 February 1919; No.59 Squadron, 2 February to 4 April 1919. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war". The following does not read like a citation but does come from Air Ministry.

 

No.15 Squadron, has during his service with the squadron taken over 1,200 successful photographs of the enemy positions, under the most adverse conditions.

 

Also, the following from file AIR 1/1057/204/5/1560 (MG.40 D.1 Volume 20), a submission from his commanding officer dated 26 November 1918:

 

Two days before hostilities ceased this officer engaged a large body of troops and transport from the air, and while doing this was heavily engaged by machine gun fire. His rudder control was shot away and the tanks pierced. Lieutenant Deremo landed about two miles on the enemy side of the lines and hid in a wood until dusk when he made his way to our lines. He brought in a most valuable report as to the enemy's movements and intentions, part of which information was gleaned from civilians in the vicinity of his hiding place.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/1511 has the recommendation as of 15 February 1919, forwarded by Lieutenant-Colonel G.W. Dawes, Officer Commanding, No.3 Brigade, Royal Air Force.

 

This officer has over 3 years of service overseas and has done nearly 300 hours war flying whilst with No.15 Squadron.

 

His work throughout has been marked by a high degree of courage and initiative and on one occasion within a week of the conclusion of hostilities he was brought down behind the enemy lines but succeeded in making his escape back to our lines, bringing useful information as to enemy movements which he had obtained by questioning the inhabitants.

 

His gallantry and devotion to duty have been an excellent example to the squadron.

 

The same file has a list of officers being recommended for a "Peace Despatch"; John Carlos Deremo is included. His work is summarized as follows:

 

Service overseas three years and seven months. Has done 275 hours during the last eight months of the war and has always shown great courage and initiative.

 

NOTE: There is some question as to whether his name is John Carlos or James Carlos; National Archives of Canada RG.150 Accession 1992-93/166 Box 2455-16 has CEF service records for a James C. Deremo (not checked as of 20 January 2000).

* * * * *

 

DEVLIN, Flight Sub-Lieutenant John Roland Secretan - Distinguished Service Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1917. Home in Ottawa (student); born 26 March 1893. Accepted as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS, in Ottawa; arrived in UK 10 December 1915; to East Fortune, 24 May 1916; to No.2 Wing, 10 October 1916; to UK in late 1917 with malaria; sick leave to Canada, 25 December 1917. Biographical file may have more on his bombing Turkish bridges, Maritza River, Balkans. The following citation was for him and two others:

 

In recognition of their services in a bombing attack on the Kulei Burges bridge on January 4th, 1917, when several direct hits were scored and considerable damage done. The machines were exposed to anti-aircraft, rifle and machine-gun fire during the attack, and also on the return journey.

 

DEVLIN, Captain John Roland Secretan - Air Force Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1918. No citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war".

 

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DICKENS, 2nd Lieutenant Clennell Haggerston - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Edmonton (student); served in 21st Canadian Infantry Battalion, CEF; to RFC, 26 September 1917 (No.2 OCW); with No.211 Squadron, 23 May 1918 to 23 February 1919. This is "Punch" Dickins, the most famous of Canadian bush pilots. No citation. Awarded OBE (Civil Division), 26 January 1935; Officer, Order of Canada, 21 December 1968.

 

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*DICKINSON, 2nd Lieutenant Thomas Archibald - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Collishaw said he was an American, and that seems to be why Dodds omitted him from his lists. However, he is included in an RAF Canada list of officers dated 9 April 1918, "Officers Proceeding Overseas". To No.27 Squadron, 8 July 1918 and to No.49 Squadron, 11 July 1918. Cited with 2nd Lieutenant Norman Frederick Frome:

 

These two officers performed most excellent service on a recent occasion. Flying at a very low altitude, they bombed a couple of bridges, and then attacked large bodies of the enemy on the roads and in a town. While thus engaged they were attacked by four enemy machines which were driven off. Fire was then opened on them from two machine guns. Descending to a still lower altitude, the observer, 2nd Lieutenant Frome, engaged these guns and drove off the detachments. 2nd Lieutenant Dickinson, the pilot, then returned over the lines, and despite the fact that his machine had been badly shot about and his petrol tanks empty, landed in safety. The height throughout this fight was never more than 400 feet. The coolness, courage and skill displayed by these two officers is deserving of the highest praise, and it is the more creditable as they had no previous experience on active service flying.

 

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DODDS, Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Robert - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 13 May 1918. Born 11 March 1893. Home in Hamilton (engineering student); formerly 129th Battalion, CEF; to Reading, 30 October 1916; to No.27 Reserve Squadron, 18 January 1917; to No.62 Squadron, 27 March 1917 (seconded to RFC); to No.38 RS, 28 May 1917; to No.48 Squadron, 12 July 1917 until 17 March 1918. Returned to Canada, 2 May 1918; to School of Aerial Fighting as Examining Officer, 19 September 1918; to England, 21 January 1918; repatriated from England, 4 April 1919

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has destroyed or driven down eleven enemy machines. On one occasion while on a one-machine patrol he attacked three enemy scouts, but owing to his gun jamming he was forced to withdraw from the attack. Though under heavy fire from the pursuing enemy he succeeded in remedying the defect, and then turned and attacked the enemy again. He destroyed one of them and drove down another out of control. Later, he led a bombing raid on an enemy aerodrome, and under intense machine-gun fire from the ground dived to within 100 feet of the hangars before releasing his bombs. Though his machine was damaged he remained at a height of 200 feet until the resat of his formation had dropped their bombs. His magnificent example of pluck and determination was of the greatest value to the squadron.

 

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DODDS, Captain Roy Edward - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919 - Born in United States, 19 July 1891. Home in St,Thomas, Ontario (auto sales agent). Joined RFC in Canada, 25 July 1917; taken on strength overseas, 15 January 1918. With No.103 Squadron, 26 May 1918 to 23 March 1919. Air Ministry report (5 December 1918) said he had flown 25 hours on "war flying as a pilot and formation leader", successfully led a bombing formation home intact from Leuze on afternoon of 23 October in failing light whilst under attack from ten Fokker biplanes, three of which his formation brought down. The actual citation (below) is unusually detailed:

 

An officer who possesses high courage combined with great power of leadership. He has taken part in sixty bombing raids far over enemy territory, a large number of which he has led. In addition, he has carried out a number of photographic reconnaissances, frequently meeting and overcoming hostile aerial resistance. In the course of these flights he has destroyed four enemy machines, and his observer has accounted for three others. A fine achievement, for the machine he flies is designed for heavy bombing and long reconnaissances rather than for aerial combats.

 

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DOUGALL, 2nd Lieutenant V. - Mentioned for Valuable Services in Captivity - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 December 1919. One of several listed in a block of awards to personnel "for gallantry while Prisoners of War in escaping or attempting to escape from captivity, or for valuable services rendered in the Prison Camps of the enemy." Very odd; he is listed as being a member of "Canadian Flying Corps", yet he does not appear in November 1918 or June 1919 RAF Lists.

 

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DOWLER, 2nd Lieutenant George Emerson - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919 - From Veteran, Alberta, or Calgary; taken on strength, 8 April 1918; with No.46 Squadron, 2 October to 10 November 1918 (missing, card says he died accidentally). See Cross and Cockade, Autumn 1961. No details and only citation was "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war."

 

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DOWSWELL, Lieutenant Stanley Lorne - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919 - Born 6 December 1892. Home in Regina (clerk); formerly in 43rd Battalion, CEF; appointed Flying Officer, 5 March 1917; School of Aeronautics, 3 July 1917; Lieutenant, 18 December 1917; with No.55 Squadron, 21 May 1918 to 7 January 1919. Relinquished commission 11 January 1919. Name given as "Dowsell" in November 1918 RAF List and London Gazette; "Dowswell" in No.55 Squadron records and September 1917 British Army List. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war." Public Record Office Air 1/1650 has a text.

 

Lieutenant Dowswell has taken part in 31 successful bomb raids, during which he has shown great determination. His cheerfulness and confidence have helped very greatly by setting an excellent example to the younger pilots of the squadron.

 

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DOYLE, Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Michael Lawrence - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918 - Born 26 November 1889; home in River Louison, New Brunswick (banker); in 199th Battalion, CEF; to No.1 SoFA, 27 June 1917; to No.3 TS, 14 August 1917; to No.83 Squadron, 18 October 1917; to S of WBD, 23 January 1918; to No.25 Squadron, 24 February 1918 (also given as 1 March 1918), serving until 2 May 1918; with No.27 Squadron, 2 May to 17 November 1918; to No.1 Wireless School, 1 April 1919; had volunteered for Canadian Air Force. Relinquished commission, 6 July 1919.

 

This officer has completed forty bomb raids, twenty low bomb and ground raids, and six photographic reconnaissances, making sixty-six distinct flights, twenty-nine of which he has led with conspicuous success. His gallantry, judgement and foresight are marked, and furnish a fine example to all.

 

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*DROPE, Captain John Harold Nelles - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). In RFC, 1915 onwards. For services in Canada (Commanding Officer, No.91 Canadian Training Squadron, 1917-1918).

 

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DUFFUS, Lieutenant Chester Stairs - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 November 1916. Born in Halifax, 1 March 1891. Obtained Royal Aero Club Certificate No.2003 on 7 November 1915 following trials on Caudron biplane at Beatty School, Hendon. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant on probation, RFC, 17 November 1915; confirmed as 2nd Lieutenant, 3 November 1916; Captain, April 1917; Major, 26 June 1917. In No.22 Squadron second half of 1916 and in 1917-1918 commanded No.25 Squadron. His Canadian connection is tenuous; although the publication Canada reported his MC (25 November 1916), on 23 January 1919 Flight reported his engagement and described his parents as living in London, England.

 

For conspicuous skill and gallantry in fights with hostile aircraft. On one occasion after hard fighting, he brought down a hostile machine in flames on our side of the lines.

 

DUFFUS, Major Chester Stairs - Officer, Order of the British Empire - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. No citation other than "in recognition of valuable services rendered in connection with the war". Public Record Office Air 1/1152/204/5/2399 has recommendation from his appointment as Squadron Commander, No.25 Squadron.

 

As a Squadron Commander this officer has shown the greatest energy and efficiency. He has kept the work of the squadron up to a high standard, especially in photographic work. He was awarded the Military Cross on 1st November 1916.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/1160/204/5/2505 has another recommendation which reads:

 

By personal example and exceptional qualities of command, has brought his squadron to a high state of efficiency. The morale of all ranks is excellent and the reconnaissances carried out have been of the greatest value.

 

This document bears a hand-written notation, "Headquarters, to be asked how many times (approximately), Duffus has been over the lines."

 

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DUKE, Captain Lancelot de Saumarez - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Victoria; formerly in 88th Battalion, CEF; joined RFC at Oxford, 11 September 1916. Served in No.35 Squadron, 4 November 1916 to 30 July 1917; to Reading, 10 August 1917; to No.4 TS, 25 September 1917; to No.74 Squadron, 18 October 1917 (under instruction); to No.86 Squadron, 29 January 1918; with No.84 Squadron, 11 February to 28 April 1918 (wounded 23 April); with No.84 Squadron again, 28 September 1918 (card also says 31 October 1918) until 8 April 1919. Repatriated 4 July 1919. No citation other than "in recogition of distinguished services rendered during the war."

 

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DUNCAN, Lieutenant Gordon Metcalfe - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Home in Hamilton (commercial traveller) although Hitchins List says next-of-kin were in Edinburgh and no Canadian connection. However, he appears in Jackson Lists. Taken on strength of RFC, 13 August 1917; appointed 2nd Lieutenant in RFC, 27 December 1917; wounded (with what unit ?), July 1918; joined No.56 Squadron, 17 September 1918; gazetted Captain, 27 September 1918.

 

A courageous fighter and skilful leader who has accounted for seven enemy aeroplanes. On 5th September, when on escort duty, he attacked a formation of five Fokker biplanes; one of these he engaged at close range and it was seen to break up in the air; he then drove down a second out of control.

 

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DUNCAN, Lieutenant Richard - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 17 September 1917. Born 3 September 1888 in Canada; home in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan (surveyor). Served in 32nd Battalion, CEF; to No.1 School of Aeronautics, 16 August 1916; appointed Flying Officer, 11 December 1916. With No.5 Squadron, 27 December 1916 to 23 November 1917 when posted to Home Establishment. A and IC School, 26 December 1917. To No.106 Squadron as Captain, 24 April 1918. Reported (RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 as having flown Caudron, Curtiss, AW.90 hp, BE.2c, BE.2e, BE.12, RE.8, and had "knowledge of every branch of Corps work and night bombing".

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in carrying out the duties of artillery pilot. When a hostile attack was imminent he carried out a reconnaissance at a very low altitude which enabled him to observe and report the position of the enemy infantry well behind their front line. He also accurately located their artillery, although his machine was much damaged by fire from the ground. He displayed splendid fearlessness and determination.

 

NOTE: His observer, Lieutenant John Clive Currie, was aso awarded an MC. Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has the recommendation for this award as sent from 1st Brigade, Royal Flying Corps on 21 July 1917.

 

For consistent gallantry in carrying out his work as an artillery pilot. On 19th July 1917, an enemy attack on Gavrelle was reported to be imminent. Lieutenant Duncan carried out a reconnaissance, which necessitated very low flying. Infantry were observed in unusual strength in trenches well behind the front line, and the batteries which were shelling Gavrelle were located and reported. Lieutenant Duncan's machine was much damaged by fire from the ground.

 

During the past seven months, this officer has done an exceptional amount of successful artillery observation, often under very adverse conditions.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/1255/204/8/39 has a report dated 2 July 1917 from the Major and Commanding Officer, No.5 Squadron, to Headquarters, No.1 Wing, Royal Flying Corps:

 

I wish to bring to your notice the excellent work done by Lieutenant Duncan and Lieutenant [John Clive] Currie while on reconnaissance yesterday evening, 1 July 1917.

 

On rumours being received that a Counter Attack was imminent, these two officers volunteered to reconnoitre the positions. Clouds were then very low, and certainly not more than 1,500 feet. They not only brought back valuable information as regards the disposition of enemy troops, but also engaged them several times at heights from 1,000 feet to 500 feet some 3,000 yards over the front line.

 

During this patrol they silenced two machine guns which were firing on them, and also drove off in a dive a German machine which attacked them. They patrolled the enemy second line three or four times, and got information of hostile batteries firing, and which trenches were fully manned.

 

DUNCAN, Captain Richard, MC - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919).

 

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DUNCAN, Lieutenant William James Arthur - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 July 1918. Home in Toronto; formerly in 228th Battalion (Canadian Overseas Railway Construction Battalion). To No.1 School of Aeronautics, 11 April 1917; to No.68 Reserve Squadron, 2 May 1917; to No.36 Training Squadron, 6 June 1917; to School of Special Flying, 30 August 1917; to Upavon, 4 September 1917; to BEF, 25 September 1917; with No.60 Squadron, 30 September 1917 to 2 July 1918 when sent to Home Establishment; to No.3 Flying School (Canada ?), 19 July 1918. Returned to unit (railway troops ?), 1 April 1919.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion he attacked and shot down an enemy plane which had been engaged in firing at our infantry. He then led his patrol over the enemy's lines, dived down to an altitude of 100 feet, and attacked large numbers of hostile infantry with machine-gun fire, causing the utmost panic amongst them and inflicting heavy casualties. His continuous gallantry and initiative have been most conspicuous.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation sent from Headquarters, Royal Air Force 3rd Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force on 4 April 1918.

 

For continued gallantry and good service in the field, especially during the recent operations.

 

On April 1st, 1918, Lieutenant Duncan attacked and shot down an Albatross Scout which landed in our lines at Gentelles. This enemy aeroplane had been engaged in shooting at our infantry from a low altitude. After he had driven this machine down, Lieutenant Duncan led his patrol over the lines, dived down to 100 feet and attacked enemy infantry, who were visible in large numbers. He himself fired 300 rounds into the attacking troops and altogether 1,250 rounds were fired by his patrol. The utmost panic ensued, and considerable casualties were inflicted. The success of this attack was entirely due to Lieutenant Duncan's initiative.

 

This officer has fought many combats, and has always shown conspicuous gallantry. He has worked with great steadiness for six months of war flying and has been most successful as a patrol leader.

 

In addition to the above mentioned Scout, he has destroyed three other enemy aircraft and driven one down out of control.

 

DUNCAN, Lieutenant William James Arthur - Bar to Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. This officer sighted fifteen enemy scouts attacking eight of ours and immediately joined in, destroying one enemy aeroplane, which fell with a wing off. He then attacked and drove down three other machines, maintaining the fight until the eight had got back to their lines. He has also, with another officer, destroyed an Albatross scout, which he followed down to a height of 200 feet, in spite of heavy machine-gun fire from the ground.

 

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DUNLOP, 2nd Lieutenant Samuel Lilburn - Distinguished Flying Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Ottawa where his sister lived and was listed as next-of-kin (accountant for Calgary Brewing and Malting Company, Calgary). Formerly in 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF. Taken on strength of RFC, 5 March 1918; with No.107 Squadron, 19 July 1918 to 6 March 1919; repatriated 1 April 1919. Incident described was during raid of 19 July 1918 on Pont-les-Brie, pilot was Lieutenant G. Beveridge, and attack was by 25 Fokker biplanes.

On a bomb raid the machine in which this officer was Observer was attacked by a number of aeroplanes; one of these he shot down in flames. On the return journey he was again attacked, and he succeeded in shooting down a second machine in flames. In this latter attack his pilot was severely wounded and fainted. Second Lieutenant Dunlop immediately took the controls. Leaving over the fuselage to support his pilot, steering the machine and at intervals firing on the enemy aircraft as they closed on him, he made for our lines, and with the help of the pilot, who had recovered consciousness, landed in safety. A very fine performance, reflecting the greatest credit on this officer's courage and skill, more especially as he had only joined the squadron three weeks previously.

 

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*DURANT, Lieutenant Basil Napier - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919; for services in Canada. Shown in December RAF List as having seniority from 1 April 1918; demobilized from RAF Canada, 19 April 1919; address given as New York, N.Y.

 

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DURHAM, Lieutenant Cecil George - Croix de Guerre (France) - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 July 1917. Had been in 19th Alberta Dragoons and Lord Strathcona Horse with which he was awarded Military Medal (London Gazette, 11 October 1916). Appointed 2nd Lieutenant for duty with RFC, 6 October 1916; Lieutenant as of 1 April 1918. Although the ORB of No.10 Squadron does not mention him from October to December 1916, G/C H.R. Stewart remembers him as being with the unit, late 1916 or early 1917 (Stewart was with that unit, 6 October 1916 to 24 May 1917). A "character", known as "Bull" Durham because he rolled his own cigarettes using a sack of Bull Durham tobacco. Used to recite "The Shooting of Dan McGrew". Became secretary of Coal Owner's Association in Calgary; in Second World War he rose to Group Captain and was awarded OBE. To No.26 Training Depot Station, 7 November 1918. Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent from First Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 1 May 1917.

 

For gallantry and devotion to duty as an observer, from October 1916 to April 1917, and in particular, on the two following occasions:-

 

On April 8th, 1917, he descended to a height of 250 feet, 2,500 yards behind the enemy's lines, to examine the state of wire and defences on the Vimy Ridge, bringing back valuable and accurate information.

 

On April 9th, 1917 near Farbus, 2nd Lieutenant Durham attacked with his machine gun a hostile battery which was retiring, causing the temporary abandonment of two guns.

 

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DURNO, Captain Robert Stewart - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant in RFC, 13 April 1917; served in No.5 Squadron, 26 August 1917 to 27 June 1918 (wounded); Captain, 28 April 1918; to England, 10 July 1918. Note: another entry on card says he joined No.5 Squadron on 24 December 1917 as a pilot. With No.2 School of Observation as of 7 November 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When on photographic work, he succeeded despite the most constant and severe fire from the ground in taking 16 photographs from a height of 1,300 feet. On the following day he took part in a low flying attack on hostile formations of troops, as a result of which, though his machine was riddled with bullets, he was forced to land, but succeeded in doing this behind our front line. He has set a splendid example to his flight.

 

NOTE: Public Record Air 1/1255/204/8/39 has a letter from the Commanding Officer of No.5 Squadron (Major C.H. Gardner) to Officer Commanding, No.1 Wing, Royal Flying Corps dated 25 March 1918 which reads:

 

I have the honour to recommend 2nd Lieutenant R.S. Durno, General List, of this squadron, for the Military Cross.

 

In submitting this officer's name, I desire to point out that on many occasions he has voluntarily undertaken and successfully carried out jobs, chiefly reconnaissance and photography, at low altitudes, under distinctly adverse circumstances, being constantly exposed to very heavy rifle and machine gun fire from the ground.

 

He has invariably displayed the utmost gallantry on all occasions and has set a splendid example to this squadron. I consider he is worthy of recognition and therefore submit his name for your approval.

 

The citation submitted differs in considerable detail from that which was published and is worth comparison:

 

For many gallant efforts in very adverse circumstances and successfully carrying out work at a very low altitude whilst exposed to constant and severe fire from the ground, particularly when engaged on photography over Bois Bernard and Neuvireuil on 24 March 1918. On this occasion he successfully took a special series of 18 photographs from a height of 1,500 feet. On 25 March 1918, this officer took part in a low flying attack on massed formations of the enemy troops over Baupume. His machine was badly shot about, and he was forced to land afterwards near our front line.

 

2nd Lieutenant Durno has set a splendid example to the other officers of his flight.

 

An identical text is found in Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127, dated 30 March 1918, at which time is was being sent from Headquartrs, 1st Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps in the Field.

 

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DURRAND, 2nd Lieutenant William - Military Cross - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 17 December 1917. Born in Scotland; home in Edmonton. Previously in 19th Alberta Dragoons. Joined CEF in Edmonton, 11 March 1916; served in 66th Battalion, CEF; to RFC as Private, 27 August 1916; to No.2 ASD, 14 March 1917; served in No.57 Squadron, 18 March to 23 April 1917; in No.20 Squadron, 3 June 1917 to 7 January 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. As a patrol leader he is dashing and determined. He has shot down seven enemy machines.

 

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