FIRST WORLD WAR HONOURS AND AWARDS TO

CANADIANS IN BRITISH FLYING SERVICES

 

 

H.A. Halliday

1594 Delia Crescent

Orleans, Ontario

K4A 1W9

 

 

(613) 830-6366

 

1997

 

 

Acknowledgement: This data base has been prepared with generous assistance from Surgeon Commander (ex F/O) John Blatherwick, CM, CD, MD, New Westminster, British Columbia.

 

NOTES

 

This data base is drawn primarily from a card file now held by the Directorate of History and Heritage, Canadian Forces Headquarters. It includes some awards for services in Russia following the First World War. Certain British personnel are incorporated by virtue of service with the RAF Training Program conducted in Canada and Texas, 1917-1918 (see, for example, Colin Goss Coleridge).

 

Because Canadian citizenship was not defined by statute until 1947, the card file (and hence this data base) includes many people who have had only fleeting associations with Canada. In the interests of providing as much information as possible, all decorated personnel from the cards are included, but many are flagged with an asterix (*) denoting "Canadian Association" rather than "Canadian".

 

Lists of decorated Canadian airmen have been published in books such as The Brave Young Wings (R.V. Dodds); in some instances they include names which cannot, at this date, be substantiated as being Canadian or having Canadian associations. These people are included in the data base, flagged with a double asterix (**) and a cautionary note explaining the source and the reason for questioning the "Canadian content" of these individuals.

 

Appended to the end of this data base is a list of civilians honoured for work associated with the RFC/RAF Training Scheme in Canada, 1917-1918.

 

 

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Although the subject of fighter pilot "scores" is of considerable interest to many, this data base does not explore the topic. Persons seeking the most informed Canadian study are advised to consult R.V. Dodds' The Brave Young Wings including the introduction to the section dealing with "scores". For a informed view on the role of First World War fighter pilots, read the introduction to Allied and Enemy Aircraft, May 1918, published by the Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario.

 

Further Reading: While much has been written on Canadians in the First World War air campaigns, much is dated and inaccurate; recent authors often borrow mistakes as well as facts from earlier writers. Canada's Fighting Airmen by George Drew may have been a "classic", but its fixation with fighter pilots was remarked upon even when it was published in 1931, and it is not recommended. Dodds (The Brave Young Wings) is a popular approach and very good; S.F. Wise (Canadian Airmen in the First World War) is by far the best book on the subject, even if a heavy read.

 

Persons with access to good public libraries with well-stocked Reference sections would do well to consult back issues of the following publications: Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society (Willowdale, Ontario), Above the Front, and both British and American editions of Cross and Cockade.

 

Hugh Halliday welcomes written comments, additions or corrections sent to his home. He has no E-mail or Internet access at this time.


 

ADAMS, Lieutenant James Weierter - Croix de Guerre (France) - no details of award - born 22 September 1898; home in Ottawa; appointed Probationary Observer Officer in RNAS, 19 April 1917 and flew on night bombing raids with Mulock's No.27 Group (No.216 Squadron). He claimed to have received the Croix de Guerre; more research needed.

 

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ALEXANDER, Alfred Mason - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Enrolled in RNAS, 6 January 1917 and known to have been in No.10 (Naval) Squadron, June 1917 and No.4 Wing, RNAS, September 1917. Little known about him and card as DHist lists Canadian connection as doubtful.

 

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ALEXANDER, Flight Lieutenant William Melville - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 September 1917. Born in Toronto, 8 November 1897; attended Stinson School, 6 February to 23 March 1916 (ACA Certificate No.447); appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS, in Ottawa, 23 March 1916; with No.3 (N) Wing, 3 December 1916 to 22 April 1917; with No.10 (N) Squadron, 26 April 1917 to 29 May 1918 (on leave to Canada, 14 October 1917 to December 1917). See Harry Creagen, "W.M. Alexander of Black Flight, Naval Ten", Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society, Fall 1965.

 

On 16th August 1917, he attacked at about 3,000 feet two hostile scouts, one of which, after a short combat, fell completely out of control.

 

On 20th August 1917, while returning from patrol, he observed three enemy scouts. These he pursued until they turned to fight. One of the scouts he shot down completely out of control, and the remaining two dived away.

 

On 21st August, 1917, while on an offensive patrol, he attacked and drove down completely out of control an enemy scout which was attacking another member of his patrol.

 

Flight Lieutenant Alexander has at all times shown the greatest bravery and determination.

 

NOTE: One of the most remarkable aspects of Alexander's career is that he received no further decorations, despite a brilliant career. This is all the more extraordinary when one finds, in Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/13, the following letter dated 17 April 1918 from the Commanding Officer, No.210 Squadron to the Officer Commanding, 10 Wing, Royal Air Force:

 

I wish to bring to your notice the name of Flight Commander William Melville Alexander, DSC, as suitable for recommendation for Bar to Distinguished Service Cross, in recognition of his excellent work and good leadership.

 

He has accounted for 16 hostile machines in the last eleven months, during four months of which he was away in Canada. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in August 1917 and since that time he has driven down nine enemy machines out of control and carried out a considerable amount of low flying.

 

A list of the most outstanding of his achievements is appended.

 

The list mentioned (quoted in full below) recounts three incidents that had already been mentioned with respect to his original Distinguished Service Cross, but in all other respects it would appear that he merited a Bar. It is worth noting that a similar recommended for J.G. Manuel was unsuccessful as well, although Manuel was accorded a posthumous Mention in Despatches.

 

1917

 

August 16th. Near Wervicq, attacked one of two enemy scouts. Fred 30 rounds from 100 yards. Tracers entered fuselage round pilot's seat and enemy aircraft nose-dived, side-slipped and fell out of control.

 

August 20th. Was attacked by five enemy aircraft while with two machines, near Langemarck. Enemy aircraft dived from above and forced our machines into cloud below. On coming out, pilot saw three of the enemy aircraft still above and climbed after them, following the three to Roubaix where they turned to fight. Drove one down completely out of control and the others broke off combat and fled.

 

August 21st. Near Menin, in a general engagement, attacked an enemy aircraft scout at 15,000 feet and followed him down to 10,000, finally getting close behind him, and firing 100 rounds when enemy aircraft turned over, side-slipped and went down entirely out of control. Pilot watched this machine for 2,000 feet.

 

August 23rd. Engaged Albatross Scout over Houthulst Wood for five minutes. After manoeuvring got good position on his beam and raked his fuselage from end to end. Enemy aircraft fell over on its back, went down several hundred feet, turned and fell again into the clouds.

 

1918

 

January 23rd. Near Staden attacked one of a formation of scouts and two-seaters. Engaged Albatross Scout just above clouds at 7,000 feet and fired 75 rounds at enemy aircraft from 60-50 yards. Enemy aircraft went down into the clouds out of control. Pilot followed through clouds and observed this machine still falling completely out of control.

 

March 6th. Near Dixmude to southeast engaged one of four enemy aircraft scouts and fired 50 rounds from 30 yards. Tracers entered machine and enemy aircraft went down in a vertical dive out of control. Result observed by Flight Lieutenant Hinchcliffe and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Rice.

 

March 10th. Attacked one of three two-seaters over Roulers. Fired 70 rounds from 20 yards. Tracers observed entering fuselage and enemy aircraft nose-dived and fell completely out of control.

 

March 24th. In combat with seven enemy aircraft over Roulers-Menin, killed pilot of one machine which fell completely out of control and must have crashed.

 

April 11th. Attacked Albatross two-seater east of Estaires, firing 150 rounds from 75 yards. Tracers seen to enter fuselage. Enemy aircraft went down out of control into cloud of smoke coming from ground. Did not reappear, so probably crashed. Confirmed by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Joseph.

 

From 9th to 17th April he dropped 38 bombs and fired 4,000 rounds from low altitudes on enemy troops and transport and other ground targets.

 

FURTHER NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/74 has a report on him, dated 23 August 1918, apparently by (but possibly for) the Brigadier Commanding No.5 Group, Royal Air Force.

 

This officer has been under my command since April 1917. he is thoroughly efficient and capable officer, who possesses an exceptional command of men. He is at present in command of a Camel Flight at Dover, and is strongly recommended for the rank of Temporary Major.

 

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ALFORD, Captain Francis Reginald, MC - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Born 24 February 1896; civil engineer; home listed as Weybridge, England; officer in Canadian Machine Gun Corps (awarded Military Cross and Mentioned in Despatches, London Gazette dated 10 January 1917); on strength of School of Military Aeronautics, 15 January 1917; to No.2 School of Aerial Gunnery, 6 February 1917 and appointed Assistant Instructor (Equipment Officer, 2nd Class); subsequently instructor of gunnery at No.2 Cadet Wing (5 June 1917), No.2 School of Military Aeronautics (31 August 1917), Armament School (28 January 1918) and Headquarters, No.48 Wing (29 March 1918); Armament Officer, No.24 Group Headquarters, 1 October 1918. Retired in British Isles.

 

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ALLAN, Captain and Flight Commander John Roy - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 29 August 1917. Born 18 October 1895; home in Montreal; applied to RNAS, October 1915; in May 1916 Militia Department informed Director of Naval Service that Lieutenant Allan, 1st Regiment, Canadian Grenadier Guards, Canadian Militia, wanted to transfer to RNAS. Trained at Curtiss School, Toronto, passing tests on 20 July 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant the same day; sailed for UK, 4 August 1916; at Crystal Palace, September 1916; at Chingford, October 1916; at Cranwell, December 1916; to Frieston, 10 January 1917; to Manstone, 1 February 1917; to No.7 (N) Squadron, Dunkirk, 5 April 1917 until 12 March 1918; to No.15 Squadron, March 1918. File Air 1/97/15/9/269 details activities; missing (believed drowned), 11 April 1918. Reported to have taken part in 43 night bombing raids on Handley-Page machines plus three daylight raids. Cited with Flight Lieutenant Lancelot Giberne Sievering, RNAS:

 

In recognition of their services in dropping bombs on enemy railway lines and ammunition dumps on the night of the 11th-12th July 1917.

 

NOTE: Public Records Office Air 1/74 has letter from Senior Officer, RNAS Dunkirk to Vice-Admiral, Dover Patrol dated 12 July 1917.It refers to "bomb attacks carried out on the night 11th/12th July 1917", stating."These attacks were carried out in cooperation with Military Operations and appear to have been very satisfactory." It then recommends several officers and NCOs for various awards. In the case of Allan it reads:

 

This officer also took part in attacks carried out on April 23rd, 26th, May 10th, June 3rd, 6th, on the two latter occasions attacking St.Denis Westrem.

 

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ALLISON, Lieutenant John Oliver - Military Cross - award effective 25 June 1918 as per London Gazette dated 11 January 1919. Home in Maxwell, Ontario (born there 8 October 1891); medical student at University of Toronto. Proceeded overseas as a Lieutenant, 162nd Battalion, CEF, November 1916; to RFC, 6 January 1917; appointed Flying Officer and seconded to RFC, 6 July 1917. To Egypt, 27 April 1917. Hospitalized, Basra, 26 August 1917. Shot down and killed while bombing and strafing enemy positions. See Major J. Everidge, "The History of No.30 Squadron", Cross and Cockade Journal, Winter 1966, stating he joined that unit on 17 August 1917 and was killed in action, 15 May 1918. University of Toronto Roll of Service says he had volunteered to take a Colonel in charge of Mapping Section over Altun Kupri, on the Lesser Zab, to gather important information on enemy positions, but ORB says he was killed with a 2nd Lieutenant Observer.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Often he descended to within a few hundred feet of the ground and, regardless of danger, bombed and machine-gunned the enemy. On one occasion he carried out four bombing raids in one day at low altitudes.

 

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ANDERSON, 2nd Lieutenant Alexander Melvin - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Home in Toronto; student of Applied Science at University of Toronto. To Britain in September 1917 as part of a COTC draft. Appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, RNAS, November 1917 and 2nd Lieutenant (Observer), RAF, 18 April 1918. In No.218 Squadron, 23 May to August 1918 and No.6 Squadron thereafter. Award for services in No.6 Squadron. In postwar RAF; transferred to Reserve, 22 May 1923 but shown on RAF List of 1928.

 

This officer performed most gallant and meritorious service on the 21st August when on contact patrol. In the morning, flying in the mist at 200 feet, and subjected to heavy hostile fire, he located our cavalry and the enemy positions. In the afternoon he made a most valuable and accurate report and situation map. While on this duty his pilot was wounded and forced to land just west of our lines; Lieutenant Anderson extricated him from the machine under heavy fire and carried him to a dressing station.

 

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*ANDERSON, Captain Samuel - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded 3 August 1918 as per London Gazette of that date - Canadian association is tenuous according to DHist cards; had received Royal Aero Club Certificate 4100 on 2 January 1917.

 

A most successful leader of patrols who has often saved squadron casualties by the skilful manner in which he has kept his patrols in hand and in formation. On a recent date, while leading his formation, he was attacked by about 40 aeroplanes. Both he and his observer were wounded, but with great gallantry he continued to keep the formation together, and led the same successfully back to his aerodrome. He has taken part in 53 bomb raids and five photographic reconnaissances.

 

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ANDERSON, Lieutenant Sydney - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Born 2 September 1896; home in Vancouver (student at University of British Columbia). Appointed Probationary Flying Officer, RNAS in Ottawa, 14 March 1917; to Vendome, 18 June 1917; to Calshot, 18 September 1917; joined Great Yarmouth Air Station on 18 December 1917 (see Story of a North Sea Air Station, p.283); wounded, Zeebruge, 4 July 1918. Captain in July 1918; to Canada in February 1919.

 

In an engagement between three of our machines and seven of the enemy this officer displayed remarkable courage and determination. Wounded early in the fight and suffering great pain, he continued the action and drove down one hostile aircraft, causing it to make a very bad landing.

 

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ANDERSON, Flight Lieutenant Walter Fraser - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 April 1920 (see The Aeroplane, 14 April 1920, pp.790-791). Born in Ryde, Isle of Wight, 1890; home in Toronto. Proceeded overseas with CEF (Canadian Army Service Corps), 28 March 1915; on command to RFC, 25 February 1916; to RFC Reading, 25 April 1916; appointed Flying Officer, 10 July 1916; wounded, 29 August 1916 with No.42 Squadron; appointed Lieutenant, RFC, 1 October 1916; with No.42 Squadron, 23 April to 19 September 1917; with No.9 Squadron, 14 September to 3 December 1917, when posted to Home Establishment. By his own account he was a Flight Comander with No.217 Squadron (DH.4 aircraft) at wars end. Date of posting to Russia uncertain. Placed on Retired List, 6 April 1927 (but still in RAF List Reserve, February 1933). Later joined British Airways; killed September 1936 (see Flight, 24 September and 22 October 1936); DH.86 on night mail run to Germany crashed soon after takeoff from Gatwick; seems to have been turning back when he lost height and hit a tree; one theory was that radio operator's foot became wedged between fire extinguisher and second rudder bar. Cited with Flying Officer (Observer) John Mitchell:

 

On July 30th, 1919, near Cherni Yar (Volga), these officers were pilot and observer respectively of a D.H.9 machine which descended to an altitude of 1,000 feet to take oblique photographs of the enemy's positions. A second machine of the same flight which followed as escort was completely disabled by machine-gun fire and forced to land five miles behind the enemy's foremost troops. Parties of hostile cavalry which attempted to capture the pilot and observer of the crashed machine were kept away by the observer's Lewis gun while the pilot burnt the machine.

 

Flight Lieutenant Anderson, notwithstanding that his petrol tank had been pierced by a machine gun bullet, landed alongside the wrecked aeroplane, picked up the pilot and observer, and got safely home.

 

The risk involved in attempting this gallant rescue was very great, as had any accident occurred in landing the fate of all four officers can only be conjectured. The difficult circumstances of the rescue will be full appreciated when it is remembered that Observer Officer Mitchell had to mount the port plane to stop the holes in the petrol tank with his thumbs for a period of 50 minutes flying on the return journey.

 

NOTE: This incident is notable for having begun as a recommendation for two Victoria Crosses which failed, probably owing to faulty paperwork arising from hasty British evacuation of South Russia. Anderson may also have been awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross. For a detailed account see Raymond Collishaw, Air Command, pp.185-188.

ANDERSON, Flight Lieutenant Walter Fraser - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 July 1920.

 

ANDERSON, Flight Lieutenant Walter Fraser - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 July 1920.

 

FURTHER NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has undated recommendation for an AFC emanating from No.217 Squadron:

 

Recommended for award of Air Force Cross. This officer has done continuous good work during the war, both on Active Service and as an instructor in England. He is a very keen officer and pilot, and has a good command.

 

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ANDERSON, Lieutenant William Kay - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1918. Born in Lindsay, Ontario; attended McMaster University, 1911-1914 and entered Osgoode Hall. Held a commission in Canadian Militia, August 1915; overseas with 109th Battalion, July 1916 (broken up); to 156th Battalion, CEF, 18 February 1917; attached to No.15 Squadron, 23 April to 20 September 1917; appointed Flying Officer (Observer), 2 June 1917 with seniority from 23 April 1917. Killed in flying accident, Haraxton, England, 7 January 1918. No citation.

 

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*ANDERSON, Flight Sub-Lieutenant William Louis - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 20 July 1917; reported in Canada, 28 July 1917 under "War Honours for Anglo-Canadians". He is also listed under "Commissions, etc. for Canadians" in Canada, 25 November 1916; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 10 May 1916; awarded Royal Aero Club Certificate 3408 on 22 August 1916. However, Air Vice-Marshall F.S. McGill described him as English with no Canadian connection; this needs to be checked further. Cited with Commander Ian Hamilton Benn, MP, RNVR.

 

In recognition of their services in the bombardment of Zeebruge on May 11-12, 1917, and of Ostend on June 4-5, 1917.

 

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ANDREWS, Captain Geoffrey - Bronze Medal for Military Valour (Italy) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Canadian connection tenuous; his mother lived in Suffolk and he was educated in England (born 1894). However, he had spent 35 months with Canadian infantry (28th Battalion, Regina, joined as private, 23 October 1914) when he joined the RFC, 20 April 1917. Joined No.34 Squadron, 27 September 1917 and flew with it until at least June 1918.

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ANGLIN, Lieutenant John Trafford - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 4 January 1917. Born in Toronto, 15 March 1892; home there (chartered accountant); enlisted in 3rd Battalion, CEF, September 1914; wounded on the Somme, October 1916. Appointed Lieutenant, CEF, 24 July 1915; Captain, June 1916; to RFC as Lieutenant (Observer), 15 March 1917; graded as Flying Officer, 23 July 1917. With No.18 Squadron, 9 April to 28 May 1917 (gravely wounded in right arm). No citation. Jackson List should be checked to see if there was an RFC connection or if it was for army services. RG.24 Accesssion 1995-96/670 suggests it was for air-related duties.

 

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ANTELL, Captain George Frederick - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Private, 2nd Battalion, CEF, August 1914 and dailed with First Contingent; to Canadian Ordnance Corps, June 1916 as Armourer Sergeant; served at Greenwhich and Woolich where he was commissioned. To Director of Ordnance Services (RAF), 6 April 1918; to Armament School, 11 June 1918. To Uxbridge, 13 July 1919; returned to CEF, 21 July 1919.

 

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ANTHONY, Captain Ellis - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born 24 December 1895. Home in Maitland, Nova Scotia; from Canadian militia he joined RNAS, 3 February 1916. See Hitchins lists for extracts of service. To Portsmouth and White City, 3 February 1916 to 20 April 1916. To Redcar, 20 April 1916; to Cranwell, 8 August 1916; to Dover Air Station, 4 October 1916; to No.1 Wing, 6 December 1916; to Dunkirk (attached RFC, 18 June 1917; to Dover Air Station, 18 June 1918; to Station Atwick (No.251 Squadron ?), 18 September 1918. Transferred to unemployed list, 29 August 1919.

 

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APPLEBY, 2nd Lieutenant Percival Ewart - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette, 2 November 1918. Born 27 June 1894 in Port-la-Tour, Nova Scotia. Educated at Lunenburg (1900-1908), Halifax County Academy (1909-1912) and Mount Allison Universiry (1913-1914. Gave his home on enlistedment as North Sydney, Nova Scotia; student at Mount Allison University. Proceeded to England, 3 October 1914 as a member of No.1 Stationary Hospital, Canadian Army Medical Corps. Served in Near East, 1 August 1915 to 6 November 1916 (promoted to Lance Corporal, 13 April 1916 and to Sergeant on 22 June 1916). Returned to England seeking a commission. On command to No.2 Officers Cadet Battalion, Pembroke College, Cambridge under instruction, 23 December 1916 to 25 April 1917. Struck off strength of CEF on being commissioned in King's Royal Rifes, 26 April 1917. Attached to RAF for instruction, 28 January 1918 and assigned to No.10 Balloon Section, Southern Training Brigade. To Headquarters, Southern Training Brigade, 1 May 1918. To No.104 Squadron, 17 May 1918. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant, RAF, 25 June 1918; continued serving in No.104 Squadron until 21 October 1918 when transferred to Home Establishment; to No.1 School of Aeronautics, 18 November 1918; to No.3 Training Depot Station, 5 May 1919; to Repatriation Camp, Upavon, 18 May 1919; to Unemployed List, 12 July 1919. Between the wars he taught music and worked in several business enterprises; served in RCAF, 30 May 1941 to 25 November 1944, chiefly as a recruiting officer. Cited with Lieutenant (Temporary Captain) Richard John Gammon (not Canadian). Appears to have participated in destruction of one enemy aircraft ("broken in the air") sometime between 2-7 August 1918, one enemy aircraft out of control on 11 August 1918, two enemy aircraft destroyed on 7 September 1918 and one enemy aircraft destroyed on 15 September 1918.

 

Captain Gammon, with 2nd Lt. Appleby as observer, was the leader of two formations (ten machines in all) on a recent raid. En route the formation was attacked by fifteen hostile aircraft; having driven these off, they reached the objective which was successfully bombed. While thus engaged the formation was fiercely attacked by fifteen enemy machines, which continued the attack for some distance on the return journey until they were driven off. Upon nearing our lines the formation was again assailed by seven machines; in the engagement that ensued one of these was destroyed and two driven down by Captain Gammon and his Observer, and in addition, three other machines were destroyed by our other machines. The officer who led the whole of the combined formations of this raid speaks in the highest terms of Captain Gammon's leadership and skilful co-operation. 2nd Lieutenant Appleby was of the greatest assistance to Captain Gammon throughout, keeping him informed of the movements and manoeuvres of the hostile machines. This officer has taken part in numerous raids, displaying on all occasion great keenness and determination.

 

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*APPS, Lieutenant Gordon Frank Mason - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918. Born in Kent, England, 3 May 1899; enlisted in Artists Rifles, February 1917; transferred to RFC, April 1917; served in No.66 Squadron, Italy, but no Canadian connection until migrating to Canada after the war. Left RAF in May 1919; commisioned in RCAF, 19 March 1924 (promoted to Flight Lieutebabt, 1 April 1928). To Winnipeg Air Station, 30 May 1924; to No.3 Photo Detachment 17 April 1928; to Winnipeg Air Station, 31 March 1929. On command to Calshot, England, 3 December 1930 to 18 May 1931. To Camp Borden as instructor, 31 May 1931. Died of natural causes at Peterborough, 24 October 1931. Citation card is noted, "See file 866-A-29, two volumes, microfilm ref. 60-1A" but location of this not known as of 12 April 1997.

 

A bold and skilfil airman who in recent operations has destroyed six enemy aeroplanes, accounting for two in one flight. He displays marked determination and devotion to duty.

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ARCHIBALD, Captain Maxwell Stansfield Eaton - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918. Home in Truro, Nova Scotia; attended McGill University (B.Sc.1910); Royal Engineers and No.18 Squadron (observer), 5 December 1917 to 12 May 1918 (died of wounds). Not found in usual lists of RCF/RAF awards. See RG.7 G.21 No.14071J. A note in PARC says "no connection with Canada. Likely confused with Harry B. Archibald of Truro, Nova Scotia". However, Jackson List includes him, stating he had taken part in many bombing raids. Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 folio 340 has recommendation forwarded from 1st Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force on 12 May 1918; name spelled Maxwell Stanfield Eaton Archibald.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has taken part in 14 successful bombing raids, 25 successful low bombing and reconnaissance flights, and eleven successful photographic flights. He has engaged, from low altitudes, enemy troops and transport with machine gun fire and bombs, during the recent battles, inflicting heavy casualties. His excellent work, good spirits, and a total disregard of personal danger at all times has been a fine example to all observers in his squadron.

 

On 9th May 1918, when on wireless and photography, in the vicinity of Phalempin, ten Pfalz scouts attacked the DH.4. He got in several good bursts and one of the enemy machines was seen, by both pilot and observer, to fall completely out of control.

 

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ARMSTRONG, Flight Commander Fred Carr - Croix de Guerre - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 April 1917. Public Records Office Air 1/74 has a memo dated 14 April 1917 stating that General Nollet, commanding 36 French Army Corps, has presented awards to several members of No.3 (Naval) Squadron; in this instance the intended recipient was unable to attemd. Born 13 June 1895; home in Toronto. Enlisted in RNAS in Canada. Served in Dunkirk Wing; joined No.3 (N) Squadron, 3 February 1917. Further information in Hitchins Notes. Killed in action, 25 March 1918. No citation other than "For distinguished services rendered during the war." See University of Toronto Record of Service which includes a photograph of him. Public Records Office Air 1/74 has communication dated 5 March 1917 from Grand Quartier Generale, Service Aeronautique noting several RNAS personnel cited in Orders of 4 Groupe de Bombardement (the French formation operating with No.3 Wing); citation repeated in Air 1/113/15/39/36; for Armstrong it reads:

 

Tres bon pilote ayant pris part a de nombreaux bombardement a grande distance, au cours desquels il donne la measure de son courage.

 

ARMSTRONG, Flight Commander Fred Carr - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 30 November 1917.

 

In recognition of his services with a Wing of the Royal Naval Air Service at Dunkirk between February and September 1917. He has destroyed several hostile machines and has led his flight with very great skill and gallantry.

 

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ARMSTRONG, Captain George Hugh (or George Hughes) - Air Force Cross - awarded effective 1 January 1919 as per London Gazette of that date. Home in Winycroft, Forest Hill, Ontario. Appointed Lieutenant, Canadian Militia, 16 November 1915 with a view to appointment in RFC; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation) in RFC, 7 December 1915. Served with Nos.1, 6 and 19 Squadrons in France. Instructed in No.43 Wing, 20 July 1917 to 27 July 1919. See University of Toronto Record of Service which includes a photograph of him.

 

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ARNOLD, Flight Lieutenant Harwood James - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 December 1915. Home in Vancouver. Born in Isle of Sheppey. Wireless telegraphist for Department of Naval Services in Ikeda, Queen Charlotte Islands before the war. On hearing of outbreak of war he sailed a 16-foot boat alone across Queen Charlotte Strait and Hecate Sound. Appointed Sub-Lieutenant, RNVR, 28 January 1915; Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 27 August 1915; assigned to Special Service, 18 September 1915; to East Africa, 18 December 1915; to East Indies (under Gordon), 18 March 1916; at Cranwell, under instruction, 18 September 1916; to Eastchurch, 18 December 1916; promoted to Flight Lieutenant, 31 December 1916; to Eastchurch, 18 March 1917. Killed accidentally, 20 March 1918. Awarded for action against the Koenigsburg, East Africa; see Flight of 17 December 1915, page 960. London Gazette has despatch covering the events and carries the following citation (jointly for Flight Commander John Tulloch Cull and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold.

 

Flight Commander Cull and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold were spotting on the 11th July, under fire, in a biplane, when the enemy's fire damaged it so that it descended in a quarter of an hour from 3,200 feet to 2,000 feet. During this time no attempt was made to return to Headquarters at Mafia, although it was obvious that this could not be done unless a start was made at once.

 

Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold continued to send his spotting signals the whole time and when a quarters of an hour later the machine was again hit and forced to descend, Flight Commander Cull controlled the machine and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold continued to send potting corrections to the last, after warning the Monitors that they were coming down, and would endeavour to land near them.

 

The aeroplane finally came down in the river, turning over and over. Flight Commander Cull was nearly drowned, but was assisted by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Arnold, and both were rescued by a boat from the Mersey.

 

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*ATEN, 2nd Lieutenant Marion Hughes - Order of St. Vladimir, 4th Class, with Swords and Bow - date uncertain - see Air 1/1957/204/260/12. American (family owned a ranch near El Centro, California. Joined RFC in Toronto, 12 November 1917; appointed Second Lieutenant, RAF, 24 April 1918; to Britain, 28 June 1918. As of 7 November 1918 he was with No.204 TDS. Flew with Collishaw in South Russia and wrote Last Train Over Rostov Bridge. An internet website, "The Aerodrome", lists him as having achieved five aerial victories in the vicinity of Tsaritsyn (Stalingrad and Volgagrad) with No.47 Squadron between April and August 1919.

 

*ATEN, 2nd Lieutenant Marion Hughes - Cross of St. George, 4th Class, with Swords and Bow - date uncertain - see Air 1/1957/204/260/12.

 

*ATEN, 2nd Lieutenant Marion Hughes - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette, 12 July 1920. No citation available on cards.

 

* * * * *

 

ATKEY, Captain Alfred Clayburn - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Home in Toronto (editorial staff, Toronto Telegram); enrolled directly in RFC in Canada as 2nd Lieutenant on Probation, 19 October 1916. Sailed on Olympic from Halifax, 13 October 1916. Joined No.18 Squadron, 17 September 1917 and served to 9 May 1918; flew with No.22 Squadron, 9 May to 21 August 1918. No.1 Flight School, 21 August 1918. Described as "expert in gunnery, bombing, photography, reconnaissance." Served in RCAF during Second World War as a Link Instructor (C6774). Died in Toronto, 29 January 1971.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When engaged on reconnaissance and bombing work he attacked four scouts, one of which he shot down in flames. Shortly afterwards he attacked four two-seater planes, one of which he brought down out of control. On two previous occasions his formation was attacked by superior numbers of the enemy, three of whom in all were shot down out of control. He has shown exceptional ability and initiative on all occasions.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent from Headquarters, First Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 29 March 1918.

 

For most conspicuous gallantry and skill when carrying out bomb raids and photographic reconnaissances. He has shown exceptional ability and initiative on all occasions, and when intercepted by enemy aircraft has continued his work with a total disregard of personal danger. Recently when engaged on the Third Army front he has carried out low reconnaissances of the utmost value, and bombing attacks from 1,000 feet with excellent results.

 

On 23 March 1918, when engaged on reconnaissance and bombing round Bapume, four Pfalz scouts were attacked. A burst was fired at the leader who was seen to crash in flames near Beaulencourt. Later four Albatross two-seaters attacked, and after a short engagement one of the enemy machines was shot down out of control.

 

On 16 March 1918, when returning from [a] bomb raid the formation was attacked by eight enemy scouts near Wavrin. A general engagement ensued in the course of which one of the enemy aeroplanes was shot down out of control.

 

On 4 February 1918, when on photography, ten Siemen Schuckert Scouts attacked over Messines. In the general engagement which ensued a burst was fired at the leader who went down out of control, and a portion of his tail plane apparently detached itself. Another of the enemy machines was engaged and shot down out of control.

 

ATKEY, Captain Alfred Clayburn - Bar to Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. During recent operations he destroyed seven enemy machines. When engaged with enemy aircraft, often far superior in numbers, he proved himself a brilliant fighting pilot, and displayed dash and gallantry of a high order.

 

FURTHER NOTE: Reseach compiled by Harry Creagen (Creagen papers, National Aviation Museum) shows Atkey is one of the most neglected of Canadian fighter pilots. 10 Army Wing Summary, file 1044 (Air 204/5/1501) lists 35 victories with wich he was associated (19 to him, 16 to hun gunners) listed below. Victories listed below: Nos.7 through 19 on Bristol Fighter B1253, 20 to 24 on C4747, 25 to 35 on B1253. See also Cross and Cockade Journal (American edition), Volume 24 No.1 for an article comparing Atkey and McKeever.

 

Date Type Place Observer/ Claim

Gunner

 

* Observer/Gunner credited with victory

ooc = enemy aircraft seen out of control

 

No.18 Squadron

 

1. 4 Feb 18 Siemans-S Messines C.R.H. Folliott ooc*

2. 4 Feb 18 Siemans-S Messines do. ooc

3. 16 Mar 18 E/A not named Wavrin Kilroy dest

4. 25 Mar 18 Pfalz Bapaume J.M. Brisbane ooc

5. 25 Mar 18 Albatross Flers do. ooc*

6. 21 Apr 18 Pfallz Aubers P. Anderson flames

 

No.22 Squadron

 

7. 7 May 18 Fokker Henin-Lietard C.G. Gass flames

8. 7 May 18 Fokker do. do. dest

9. 7 May 18 Fokker do. do. dest

10. 7 May 18 Fokker do. do. dest*

11. 7 May 18 Fokker NE of Arras do. dest*

12. 9 May 18 Fokker Lille do. ooc

13. 9 May 18 Fokker Lille do. ooc

14. 9 May 18 Fokker Lille do. dest*

15. 9 May 18 Pfalz Douai do. ooc

16. 9 May 18 Pfalz Douai do. ooc

17. 15 May 18 Pfalz Lille do. ooc

18. 15 May 18 Pflaz Lille do. ooc

19. 19 May 18 Albatross C SW of Douai do. ooc

20. 19 May 18 LVG Lille do. ooc

21. 19 May 18 LVG Lille do. ooc

 

22. 20 May 18 Halberstadt C Armentieres do. ooc

23. 20 May 18 Halberstadt C do. do. ooc

24. 20 May 18 Halberstadt C do. do. ooc*

25. 22 May 18 Scout (unnamed) SE of Arras do. ooc

26. 22 May 18 DFW Merville do. ooc

27. 27 May 18 Pflaz Meurchin area do. dest

28. 27 May 18 Pflaz do. do. ooc

29. 27 May 18 Pfalz do. do. ooc

30. 30 May 18 Pfalz Armentieres do. ooc

31 30 May 18 Pfalz do. do. ooc*

32. 31 May 18 Pfalz do. do. ooc

33. 31 May 18 Pfalz do. do. ooc*

34. 2 June 18 EA unnamed - - - do. ooc.

35. 2 June 18 two-seater - - - do. ooc*

 

* * * * *

 

ATKINS, Lieutenant George Carman - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 December 1919 - Appointed 2nd Lieutenant, Royal Flying Corps, 17 November 1916. Missing, prisoner of war, 19 June 1917 (or 1 September 1917 ?). Repatriated, 14 December 1918. Awarded Mention in Despatches for "valuable services in captivity". Apparently he made several escape attempts, though always recaptured; see biographical file.

 

* * * * *

 

AULPH, Lieutenant Cecil Trevor - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per Air Ministry Communique and London Gazette dated 15 July 1919; previously listed in Belgian Army Daily Orders of 21 May 1919 (Public Record Office Air 1/1839/204/208/20). Home in Bracebridge, Ontario (bank clerk); joined RFC in Canada, 29 October 1917; appointed Lieutenant, RAF, 1 April 1918. Served in No.10 Squadron from 5 April to 27 October 1918 when wounded in though by enemy machine gun fire. Air 1/166/15/149/1 (MG.40 D.1 Vol.5) gives details of his services on 17 occasions. No citation.

 

* * * * *

 

AXFORD, Captain Herbert - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 24 August 1894. Home in Winnipeg (salesman). Lieutenant, 90th Regiment (Winnipeg Rifles), February 1917; Lieutenant, 223rd Battalion, February 1917; overseas, May 1917. Seconded to Royal Flying Corps, 4 July 1917. To School of Military Aeronautics, Reading, 10 July 1917; to No.66 Training Squadron, 25 July 1917; to Brigade Pool, 20 September 1917; to No.105 Squadron, 13 November 1917; to No.4 School of Aerial Gunnery (date uncertain); to No.1 School of N and BD (Navigation and Bomb Dropping ?), 11 April 1918; to No.211 Squadron, 25 May until 7 October 1918. Ceases RAF secondment, 14 March 1919; relinquishes commission 15 March 1919. RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 notes that he spoke Icelandic and had flown the following types of aircraft: DH.6, BE.2b, BE.2c, BE.2e, RE.8, BE.12, DH.4, DH.9, Bristol Fighter.

 

On the 16th August this officer led his formation to bomb certain docks; these docks were exceptionally well guarded, and our planes were heavily handicapped by adverse weather conditions; moreover, the formation had suffered casualties, and his own machine was badly damaged; he nevertheless succeeded in reaching and bombing his objective in the face of an intense barrage. On the following day he again successfully bombed the same objective. Lieutenant Axford has taken part in thirty-four successful bomb raids, inspiring all who serve with him by his personal courage and intense devotion to duty.

 

* * * * *

 

AYRE, Captain Ronald Henderson - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 27 October 1917. Home in St.John's, Newfoundland. Served with No.80 CTS, No.44 Wing (RAF Canada), 6 April 1918 to 21 November 1918; to No.141 Squadron, 27 February 1919. Not clear what was his unit when awarded MC. His son, Wilfred J. Ayre, in a letter to H.A. Halliday (6 July 2001) stated that he served in No.27 Squadron (Martinsyde Elephants).

 

During a period of five months he took part in many successful bombing raids. On one occasion he bombed an enemy airship shed, and on another occasion bombed a railway station from a height of 500 feet. He derailed part of a train, and then engaged the occupants with machine gun fire. He displayed the greatest gallantry and determination.

 

* * * * *

 

BAGULEY, Captain Frederick Hubert - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Home in Toronto; accepted as RFC candidate in Canada and appointed Second Lieutenant (on Probation), 19 October 1916; served in No.16 Squadron (23 February to 22 August 1917), No.2 Squadron (15 March to 20 September 1918) and No.8 Squadron (20 September 1918 to 8 April 1919). No published citation. Jackson List has no citation but mentions that he was in many combats, crashed at least one enemy machine, and much work with artillery; with No.8 Squadron he was particularly active in cooperating with Tank Corps (Bourlon Wood, crossing St.Quentin Canal). Public Record Office Air 1/1841 has recommendation submitted by No.2 Squadron.

 

For continuous good work, keenness and devotion to duty during the last eight months with this squadron. This officer has most successfully completed numerous registrations on enemy wire, dug-outs, trenches, etc. He has also successfully taken photographs and completed many destructive shoots on hostile positions. His contact and counter-attack patrols have invariably been successful, while the information brought back has always been most useful. He has also successfully done night bombing. On several occasions he has been attacked by enemy aircraft and on 23 April 1918 he was attacked by eight scouts and shot one down in flames. Also on 6 May 1918 he was attacked by one scout which he shot down in flames.

 

Captain F.H. Baguley has flown 242 hours 55 minutes as a pilot with this squadron. He has always shown the greatest keenness and capability in his work. He is strong recommended for an award.

 

* * * * *

 

BAKER, Lieutenant Frederic Lefevre - Mentioned for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919. Born 21 August 1892. Home in Vancouver (law student). Proceeded overseas with 67th Battalion, CEF, May 1916. Second to RFC, 4 August 1916; with No.16 Squadron, 12 January to 2 July 1917 (wounded over Lens); to Canada, November 1917; instructor, School of Military Aeronautics and Flying Instructor, Leaside, December 1917, serving with Nos.89 and 90 Canadian Training Squadrons. Returned to England, 15 July 1918 and assigned to No.44 Training Depot Station (RE.8 pilot). To No.1 Canadian Squadron, 29 November 1918; to No.1 (Training) Group, 13 January 1919; to Lymphe, 14 February 1919; to No.30 Training Depot Station, 1 March 1919. Discharged as Captain, June 1919. No citation.

 

* * * * *

 

BAKER, Lieutenant John Wakeling - Military Cross - No.4 Squadron - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 July 1918. Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, 23 October 1897; educated at Eastbourne College and Royal Military Academy, Woolich. Served in Royal Artillery, transferring to the Royal Flying Corps as an observer, 1917. No card for him can be found among DHist records of Canadians in the First World War flying services, which suggests that he was only briefly in Canada even before the war). With No.60 Squadron, India, 1923-28 (awarded DFC, 20 November 1925); Royal Air Force Staff College, 1931; Directorate of Air Staff Duties, Air Ministry, 1932-35; commanded No.33 Squadron, 1935-36; Air Staff Training Command, 1936-38; Imperial Defence College, 1938; Deputy Director of Plans and Director of Bomber Operations in Air Ministry, 1939-42 (notes accompanying his CB state he was appointed to Directorate of Plans, Air Ministry, August 1939 and appointed Director of Bombing Operations, Air Ministry, February 1941); Senior Air Staff Officer, Air Command, Southeast Asia, 1943-44; Air Officer Commanding, No.12 Group, Fighter Command, 1945-46; Director General of Personnel, Air Ministry, 1946-48; Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Coastal Command, 1948-50; Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Middle East Air Force, 1950-52; Vice-Chief of the Air Staff, 1952-1953. Awarded GBE as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1954 as Controller of Aircraft, Ministry of Supply). For further details of Waritistan operations see London Gazette of the same date which carries a long despatch. AFRO 1413/42 dated 4 September 1942 (reporting CB award) described him as a Canadian in the RAF but included "VC" among his postnominal letters ! Public Record Office Air 1/1255/204/8/39 has recommendation forwarded by Major R.E. Saul (Commanding Officer, No.4 Squadron) and Lieutenant-Colonel E.L. Gossage (Officer Commanding, No.1 Wing) through 1st Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 13 April 1918.

 

For most conspicuous gallantry, devotion to duty and consistently excellent work, especially between the 7th and 12th April 1918, whilst flying on low reconnaissances and Contact Patrols under very heavy machine gun, rifle and anti-aircraft fire.

 

Lieutenant Baker, flying with his Flight Commander, Captain D.F. Stevenson, MC, on the 7th April 1918, carried out z reconnaissance of the enemy positions, before the attack on the XV Corps front, obtaining very detailed and accurate information, which was dropped at Corps, Divisional and Artillery Headquarters.

 

He fired into Aubers amongst enemy infantry and into Le Pietre, and attacked and drove off two enemy scouts during this flight.

 

Flying with Captain Stevenson, MC, he carried out Contact Patrols on the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th April 1918, flying a total of 17 hours 20 minutes over the lines, at heights varying from 50 feet to 500 feet. On the 11th April he carried out three Contact Patrols, flying for 7 hours. On the last flight on that day he remained up until dark, despite the thick mist.

 

On the 12th April he carried out two very successful Contact Patrols, flying for six hours five minutes. On the second occasion he observed two infantry attacks, upon which the pilot sent down two SOS calls. Both attacks were repulsed. He fired into enemy troops and transport causing great confusion and remained over the lines, taking notes, until quite dark.

 

On each of these Contact Patrols, except those carried out on the 12th April, he flew under abnormally bad weather conditions, frequently from 50 to 200 feet, and on each occasion came back with his machine riddled with bullets.

 

On every flight he obtained most important and accurate information as to our and the enemy dispositions, which was dropped at Corps Headquarters.

 

It is greatly due to this officer's magnificent work with Captain Stevenson that Headquarters obtained timely information as to the enemy's movements and dispositions.

 

Further, his magnificent example and cheerfulness at a time when casualties in his squadron were extremely heavy are worthy of the very highest praise.

 

The same file contains a letter from Commanding Officer, No.4 Squadron to Headquarters, No.1 Wing, Royal Air Force, dated 12 April 1918:

 

These officers [Stevenson and Baker] have carried out five Contact Patrols under extremely dangerous and trying conditions. In every case, with one exception, they were forced to fly at less than 500 feet, owing to mist and low clouds, being under heavy machine gun and rifle fire all the time.

 

Notwithstanding this, they succeeded in gaining very valuable information and kept the XV Corps constantly and accurately informed as to the location of our and the enemy troops.

 

On one occasion they left the aerodrome at 7.10 p.m. during a thick mist and successfully carried out a counter-attack patrol, dropped a message at XV Corps Headquarters, and succeeded in landing on the aerodrome in mist and darkness at 8.15 p.m.

 

On each occasion their machine was very badly shot about by machine gun and rifle fire from the ground.

 

These two officers have always exhibited the highest courage and showed great devotion to duty.

 

* * * * *

 

BALLANTYNE, Captain David Moore - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919 - Born in Scotland, 24 July 1889; home in Montreal (draughtsman); applied to RNAS through Ottawa, 1915; unable to enter any flying schools; pprovided with a warrant to HMCS Niobe, 2 December 1915; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 3 February 1916 and sailed to UK; at Redcar (under instruction), 18 June 1916; at Westgate, 28 March 1917; with No.2 Wing, 18 June 1917; with Ark Royal, 18 September 1917; with No.2 Wing, Marsh aerodrome, Mudros, 18 December 1917; reported as being in Aegean Group (Stavros), 18 September and 18 December 1918. Name spelled "Moar" in London Gazette. Award not mentioned in DHist cards but name appears on Dodds list. No citation.

 

* * * * *

 

BANBURY, Captain Fred Everest - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 April 1918 - Born in Wolsely, Saskatchewan, 27 October 1893; home in Regina. Attained ACA Certificate No.507 at Curtiss School, Newport News, Virginia, 21 June 1916; joined RNAS as Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 28 June 1916 and sailed for UK, 22 July 1916. Arrived in France, March 1917, serving in No.9 (N) Squadron on Dunkirk-Zeebruges front. Appointed Flight Commander, July 1917. Allowed home leave, December 1917, returning to duty with No.9 Squadron in March 1918. Died of a heart attack while flying, 1 April 1918. No citation other than "in recognition of services as Dunkirk". File RG.7 G.21 Vol.552 "Decorations" has a letter from Lord Milner to the Governor General dated 13 February 1919 stating that Banbury had been "killed in action". The letter goes on to say:

 

The decoration was awarded to Flight Lieutenant Banbury for displaying continuous skill and ability as a Pilot between February and December 1917, during which period he was reported to have destroyed 11 enemy machines...

 

* * * * *

 

BANNATYNE, Lieutenant Andrew Mansfield - Croix de Guerre avec Palme - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919. Appointed Probationary Flight Officer, RNAS, 8 July 1917; at Manstone from 7 November 1917 forwards; wounded with No.6 (N) Squadron, 12 January and 9 or 10 March 1918; with Aeroplane Repair Section, 7 November 1918. Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation dated 1 September 1918 while he was with No.206 Squadron.

 

When on a low Bombing Patrol, on the 10th March, 1918, against Giant Aeroplane on the ground near St.Pierre Cappelle, was attacked by five enemy aircraft. He was severely wounded in the left arm and thigh, but with the aid of his Observer, who kept off the enemy aircraft, he flew his machine for another 15 minutes, though many controls were shot away, and landed intact near La Panne.

 

His skill and coolness, under very trying circumstances, were worthy of the highest praise.

 

* * * * *

 

BARAGAR, Captain Frank Bell - Air Force Cross - award effective 1 January 1919 as per London Gazette of that date. Born 12 February 1889. Home in Elm Creek, Manitoba (agricultural student); appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation) in RFC from CEF, 29 April 1916; Lieutenant, 1 July 1917; Captain, 1 August 1918. Arthur Lee Gould, No Parachute, mentions a Canadian named "Barrager" in No.46 Squadron on 22 May 1917; wounded 3 September 1917. Joined No.112 Squadron, May 1918; posting as of Armistice is given variously as No.112 Squadron and No.188 (N) Training Squadron.

 

* * * * *

 

BARKER, Major Ernest Bernard - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 October 1919. Home in Winnipeg. Went overseas with 8th Battalion, CEF; discharged 9 December 1916 on taking an Imperial Commission. Was GSO2 and secretary to Major-General E.L. Ellington, CMG, Controller-General of Equipment and Member of Air Council. Shown in 1919 as Lieutenant (Acting Major). In 1939, when living in Vancouver, he applied to join the RCAF.

 

* * * * *

 

BARKER, 2nd Lieutenant William George - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 January 1917. Born in Dauphin, Manitoba; home in Winnipeg; attached to Royal Flying Corps, 2 April 1916; to No.4 Squadron, 7 April 1916; to No.15 Squadron, 18 July 1916; qualfified as Observer, 27 August 1916; graded as pilot, July 1917; to No.47 Squadron, 12 July 1917; wounded 7 August 1917; to No.15 Squadron, 17 August 1917; to No.28 Squadron, 8 October 1917; to No.66 Squadron, 10 April 1918; to No.139 Squadron, 14 July 1918; to England, 30 September 1918; to No.201 Squadron, 17 October 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry in action. He flew at a height of 500 feet over the enemy's lines, and brought back most valuable information. On another occasion, after driving off two hostile machines, he carried out an excellent photographic reconnaissance.

 

BARKER, 2nd Lieutenant William George - Bar to Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 July 1917.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He has done continuous good work in co-operation with the artillery, and has carried out successful reconnaissances under most difficult and dangerous conditions.

 

BARKER, Captain William George - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 February 1918; citation in issue of 18 July 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When on scouting and patrol work he has on five different occasions brought down and destroyed five enemy aeroplanes and two balloons, though on two of these occasions he was attacked by superior numbers. On each occasion the hostile machines were observed to crash to earth, the wreckage bursting into flames. His splendid example of fearlessness and magnificent leadership have been of inestimable value to his squadron.

 

BARKER, Captain William George - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 30 May 1918.

 

BARKER, Captain William George - Silver Medal for Military Valour (Italy) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 September 1918.

 

BARKER, Captain William George - Second Bar to the Military Cross -awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When leading patrols he on one occasion attacked eight hostile machines, himself shooting down two, and on another occasion seven, one of which he shot down. In two months he himself destroyed four enemy machines and drove down one, and burned two balloons.

 

BARKER, Captain William George - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 September 1918.

 

BARKER, Major William George - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 October 1918.

 

BARKER, Major William George - Bar to the Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

A highly distinguished patrol leader whose courage, resource and determination has set a fine example to those around him. Up to the 20th July, 1918, he had destroyed thirty-three enemy aircraft - twenty-one of these since the date of the last award (second Bar to the Military Cross) was conferred on him. Major Barker has frequently led the formation against greatly superior numbers of the enemy with conspicuous success.

BARKER, Major William George - Victoria Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 30 November 1918.

 

On the morning of the 27th October, 1918, this officer observed an enemy two-seater over the Foret de Mormal. He attacked this machine and after a short burst it broke up in the air. At the same time a Fokker biplane attacked him, and he was wounded in the right thigh, but managed, despite this, to shoot down the enemy aeroplane in flames.

 

He then found himself in the middle of a large formation of Fokkers who attacked him from all directions, and was again severely wounded in the left thigh, but succeeded in driving down two of the enemy in a spin.

 

He lost consciousness after then, and his machine fell out of control. On recovery he found himself being again attacked heavily by a large formation, and singling out one machine he deliberately charged and drove it down in flames.

 

During this fight his left elbow was shattered and he again fainted, and on regaining consciousness he found himself still being attacked, but notwithstanding that he was now severely wounded in both legs and his left arm shattered, he dived on the nearest machine and shot it down in flames.

 

Being greatly exhausted, he dived out of the fight to regain our lines, but was met by another formation, which attacked and endeavoured to cut him off, but after a hard fight he succeeded in breaking up this formation and reached our lines, where he crashed on landing.

 

This combat, in which Major Barker destroyed four enemy machines (three of them in flames), brought his total successes to fifty enemy machines destroyed, and is a notable example of the exceptional bravery and disregard of danger which this very gallant officer has always displayed throughout his distinguished career.

 

* * * * *

 

BARNABY, Captain Hayen Attis - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 December 1917. Formerly in Canadian Field Artillery; joined 13th Wing Headquarters as Assistant Recording Officer, 31 July 1917; a supply officer.

 

BARNABY, Captain Hayen Attis - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919.

 

* * * * *

 

BARNUM, Lieutenant Bliss Edward - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Born 19 October 1896 in Kingston, Ontario; home there (student); joined RNAS in Ottawa, 19 April 1917; graded Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 19 October 1917; to No.12 (N) Squadron, 1 December 1917. Later to No.4 (N) Squadron, date uncertain until 20 October 1918 when posted to Furious. See Air 1/97/15/9/269.

 

In the absence of his flight commander, Lieutenant Barnum has since the 28th September acted as leader in eleven successful low bombing raids. In these he has shown marked courage and devotion to duty, descending at times to 50 feet altitude. In addition, this officer has destroyed four enemy machines.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/74 has a confidential report from the Commanding Officer, No.204 Squadron to the Officer Commanding, No.61 Wing, dated 18 September 1918 which bears upon the above citation:

 

Had led "B" Flight for some time in the absence of his Flight Commander, and has given every satisfaction, both in the air and on the ground. He will, in my opinion, make a very fine Flight Commander.

 

* * * * *

 

BARR, James, Sergeant Mechanic - Meritorious Service Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Aeroplane dated 8 January 1919 gives his number (16852) and home town (Barrhead, New Brunswick) but no other details. Public Record Office Air 1/1650 has identifies him as a Petrol Driver with Headquarters, 8th Brigade, and provides the recommendation with text.

 

This Non-Commissioned Officer came down on the formation of the 41st Wing, and has served with the 41st Wing Headquarters, and subsequently with 8th Brigade Headquarters, continuously since that time. He has throughout shown the most painstaking and praiseworthy devotion to duty and by his fine morale set and maintained an excellent example to the other Non-Commissioned Officers and airmen with whom he has worked.

 

* * * * *

 

BARRON, Captain John Augustus - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 October 1917. Born at Lindsay, Ontario, 29 March 1894. Home in Stratford, Ontario. Notes in the Directorate of History, Canadian Forces Headquarters, copied from Canadian Naval Service File 60-B-7, state that he was the son of Judge John A. Barron (Stratford). In 1908 he was appointed Cadet in the Canadian Marine Service; joined the Coast Guard Ship Canada in Halifax, June 1908; appointed Midshipman in Royal Canadian Navy, 1910, being sworn in on 16 December 1910 (seniority from 21 October 1910) and sent to HMCS Niobe. In the autumn of 1911 he suffered eyestrain and was unable to proceed to Britain for further training at HMS Dreadnought. He was granted three months sick leave from 1 November 1911. He left Halifax for Britain, 23 February 1912, aboard the SS Empress of Ireland. On arrival in London, en route to his ship, he called on a medical specialist who placed him in a nursing home and diagnosed the problem as a brain tumour ! He later proceeded to Dreadnought. In August 1912 a medical report by the Fleet Surgeon stated he was medically unfit for military service with the Royal Navy; his condition had improved but his eyesight was still deficient, owing to inflammation of optic nerves and retina; it was uncertain as to whether the trouble would eventually clear up. The Admiralty advised the Director of Naval Service (Canada) that Barron was unfit for further naval service. He was returned to Canada and invalided from the RCN on 3 December 1912. An RAF Record of Service takes up his career as follows: entered Royal Navy as Midshipman, 20 August 1914 (it would appear that his appointment as Midshipman was backdated to 15 May 1913); RN List assigns him to battleship King George V as of 26 August 1914; posted to Kingsnorth Airship Station, 17 March 1915 (notes from Naval Service file 60-B.7 states, "Barron was one of 20 acting Sub-Lieutenant, RN, who were lent from the RN to the RNAS for special service in March 1915. He was the only Canadian officer amongst this group"); appointed Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 15 May 1915; to Barrow-in-Furness Airship Station, 26 May 1915; to Anglesea at uncertain date (RN List places him there on 18 December 1915 and 18 March 1916); to Kingsnorth again, 24 May 1916; confirmed as Sub-Lieutenant, Royal Navy, 15 June 1916 (the document bears a handwritten notation by R.V. Dodds - "15-1-16 ?"); to Mullion Airship Station (date not given; RN List places him there as of 18 September 1916); promoted Flight Lieutenant, RNAS, 1 October 1916; posted to Howden, 12 January 1917; to Pembroke, 20 March 1917; to Wormword Scrubs (Italian Ships), 2 May 1917; to No.6 Wing, 18 June 1917; in Malta as of 18 September 1917 (RN Lists); to No.6 Wing for "special service", 18 December 1917; promoted Flight Commander, RNAS, 31 December 1917; to United States, 8 February 1918; transferred to RAF as Captain (Dirigibles), 1 April 1918; to Canada, 7 November 1918 (bur notes from Naval Service file 60-B.7 say "Signal from Ottawa to Admiralty requesting that Flight Commander Barron be transferred to Ottawa for duty with Naval Department. He reported officially for duty in Ottawa - from the U.S. - on June 19, 1918"); to East Fortune Airship Station (date not shown); granted Permanent Commission in RAF, 1 August 1919 as Flight Lieutenant; to Germany, 11 August 1919 (Inter-Allied Aeronautical Control); to Canadian Air Board, 27 November 1920; to Armament and Gunnery School, 1 June 1922; to No.2 AAD, date uncertain; placed on Half Pay List, 7 July 1925; placed on retired list at his own request, 21 October 1925. Notes from Naval Service file 60-B.7 state that he joined No.10 EFTS, Mount Hope as Chief Ground Instructor in 1940, took a special course in air navigation at Rivers, Manitoba, in April 1942, and that he was still at No.10 EFTS in June 1942. There is no record of him as a member of the RCAF and although his presence as a civilian instructor is possible, this has not been confirmed as of 28 August 2000. The RAF Record of Service states that although there is no information on when he finished training or of his first operational posting, he did have about 200 hours. It further states, "6 October 1916 - Favourable report on conduct on occasion of sighting German submarine by Airship C.10"; this is cross-referenced to War in the War, Volume 2, p.384.

 

For services on patrol duties and submarine searching in Home Waters.

 

BARRON, Captain John Augustus - Cavaliere, Order of St.Maurice and St.Lazarus (Italy) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Notes from Naval Service file 60-B.7 or Ottawa Citizen of 3 February 1919 state that this was "in recognition of work he did in command of an airship squadron in Taranto."

 

* * * * *

 

BATH, Captain Henry James - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1918. Born in Toronto, 12 February 1889; attended Stinson School and received ACA Certificate No.467, 26 April 1916; taken on strength of RNAS in Ottawa, 1 May 1916. Took part in a submarine attack at Felixstowe in 1917; left the service 11 September 1918 as he did not wish to be absorbed in the RAF.

 

* * * * *

 

BEACH, Lieutenant Arthur Harold - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Joined 28th Battalion, 27 October 1914; appointed 2nd Lieutenant on Probation, RFC, 24 May 1917; confirmed as 2nd Lieutenant (Honorary Captain), RFC, 29 July 1917. With Headquarters, 29th Wing, 7 November 1917. May also have served with Canadian Forestry Corps. As of 1922 with No.6 Squadron, Baghdad.

 

* * * * *

 

BEANLANDS, Captain Bernard Paul Gascoigne - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 January 1918 (another entry of DHist card gives 25 April 1918 as well). Home in Victoria; commissioned in Hampshire Regiment as 2nd Lieutenant, 23 December 1914. Attained Royal Aero Club Certificate 2473, 20 February 1916; to be Lieutenant while serving with RFC, 1 September 1916. In No.70 Squadron and then (late 1917 and early 1918) in No.24 Squadron. Wounded, April 1918. Killed in flying accident, Northolt, 8 May 1919.

 

He has brought down three enemy aeroplanes out of control and driven down several others over the enemy lines.

 

NOTE: His rather tenuous Canadian connection is explained by an entry in Canada, 13 April 1918, page 40 (copied by Harry Creagen and found in Creagen Papers, National Aviation Museum), reporting that Captain Bernard P.G. Beanlands, MC, Hampshire Regiment and RFC, had been wounded. He was described as being the son of Mrs. Beanlands of Wickhurst Manor, Seven Oaks and of "the late Canon Beanlands, formerly of Victoria, B.C."

 

* * * * *

 

BEATTY, Captain James Stanley - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 July 1919. Home in Toronto (barrister); enrolled in RFC in Canada, 20 November 1915; appointed Flying Officer and 2nd Lieutenant, 28 March 1916. To No.33 Squadron, 4 March 1916; to No.5 Squadron, 4 May 1916; to No.72 Squadron, 3 January 1918; to No.7 Squadron, 13 August 1918. Flew in France, Egypt, Mesopotamia.

 

During the operations near Sheroat, October 24 to 30, 1918, he rendered gallant service in harassing the enemy by machine gun fire from very low altitudes, being vigorously fired upon the whole time. Captain Beatty has always been conspicuous for gallantry and devotion to duty. On April 21, 1918 he destroyed one enemy machine and brought down another out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

BEAVER, Captain Wilfred - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Born in Bristol, England, 10 May 1896; schooled there; to Montreal, 1913 to live with relatives. Overseas with 1st Contingent, Canadian Field Artillery, and served in 1st Canadian Heavy Battery in France. Joined RFC 1 March 1917. Trained in England; to No.20 Squadron, 22 October 1917 to 20 June 1918. To 21st Wing, England, as Assistant Wing Examining Officer. Moved to United States in 1919 and became American citizen, 1926. Served in USAAF during Second World War, serving with 447 Bomb Group (B-17s) in England; although chiefly a ground staff officer, he flew at least 25 missions and was awarded the Bronze Star.

 

During the last five months he has destroyed five hostile machines and has brought down completely out of control six others. During the recent operations he has performed exceptionally good work in bombing and firing upon hostile troops from very low altitudes. He has displayed marked gallantry and resource, and has proved himself a patrol leader of great dash and ability.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has the recommendation for a DCM to his gunner, 67051 Corporal (Acting Sergeant) Ernest Arthur Deighton, forwarded from Headquarters, 2nd Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force on 29 May 1918. To the extent that this adds to the account of Beaver's operational career, it is transcribed here.

 

On the 9 May 1918, when acting as Observer to Captain Beaver on offensive patrol, seven Albatross scouts were engaged near Comines. Sergeant Deighton shot one down, which crashed near Warneton.

 

On the 16 May 1918, with Lieutenant Weston as his pilot, Sergeant Deighton was in an engagement with twelve enemy scouts; he shot one down, which crashed on the canal bank near Wervicq.

 

On the 19 May 1918, when again with Lieutenant Weston on offensive patrol between Armentieres and Merville, a large formation of Pfalz scouts was engaged. Sergeant Deighton shot one down, which burst into flames and crashed. A few minutes later he accounted for another which fell just north of Frelinghem Cross Roads.

 

On the 27 May 1918, with Captain Beaver as pilot, Sergeant Deighton shot down a Triplane, which fell northeast of Perenchies.

 

This Non-Commissioned Officer has shown marksmanship and coolness in action, and is a valuable asset in his squadron.

 

Another version of the recommendation, dated 27 May 1918, reads as follows:

 

This Non-Commissioned Officer has carried out his work with great gallantry and skill. He has taken part in many aerial combats during which he has destroyed four enemy aircraft and brought down one out of control. On 19th May, 1918 he destroyed two Pfalz Scouts during the same patrol. On 17th May, 1918 he destroyed two enemy Triplanes during one patrol.

 

His conduct has always been an example to others.

 

Details of his combats are as follows:-

 

16 May 1918 one Albatross Scout crashed near Canal Bank at Wervicq

19 May 1918 one Pflaz Scout burst into flames north of Merville

19 May 1918 one Pfalz Scout creashed near cross roads at Frelinghem

27 May 1918 on enemy Triplane completely out of control near Armentieres

27 May 1918 one enemy Triplane crashed northest of Perenchies

 

* * * * *

 

BELL, Captain Gerald Gordon - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 11 June 1890 in Canada; home in Ottawa (mechanical engineer). Served in 38th Canadian Infantry Battalion. To No.22 Squadron as Observer on Probation, 9 January 1917; Flying Officer (Observer), 9 June 1917; to Reading, 13 August 1917; to No.12 Training Squadron, 20 September 1917; to No.83 Squadron, 13 October 1917. To Egypt, 19 October 1917 and assigned to Training Brigade; graded as pilot, 19 December 1917; to No.16 Wing, 21 January 1918. With No.150 Squadron, 13 June 1918 to 15 November 1918. Promoted to Captain, 13 June 1918. Ceased to be attached to RAF, 6 May 1919. RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 notes that he "completed course in aerial gunnery, Egypt, Aerial Fighting School, Egypt."

 

This officer has had numerous engagements with hostile aircraft, invariably displaying marked gallantry and leadership of a high order, notably on the 1st June, when he, accompanied by another pilot, attacked a formation of enemy scouts; he shot down one in flames and drove down others out of control, only breaking off the engagement when all his ammunition had been expended.

NOTE: Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum) include a list of victories (all shared) as follows:

 

27 Feb 1918 - with Lt. F.R. Travers

14 April 1918 - with Lt. C.B. Green

13 May 1918 - with Lt. A.G. Goulding

15 June 1918 - with Captain B.M. Brawley and Lt. L. Hamilton

18 June 1918 - with Lt. A.G. Goulding

23 June 1918 - with Captain B.M. Brawley and Lt. L. Hamilton

18 July 1918 - with Brawley, Ridley and A.E. Jarvis

5 Aug 1918 - with Lt. J.A.Beeney

 

BELL, Captain Gerald Gordon - Mention in Despatches - award authority uncertain from DHist card but may have been the same date as his DFC. Listed (without date) in RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670.

 

BELL, Captain Gerald Gordon - Legion of Honour, Croix de Chevalier - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 October 1919.

 

* * * * *

 

BELL, Captain Hilliard Brooke - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918. Born in Chatham, Ontario, 9 March 1897. Educated in Aurora and Universirt of Toronto (Osgoode Hall) where he was still a student on enlistment; joined 67th (University of Toronto) Battery, Canadian Field Artillery as a Gunner, May 1916; commissioned in Canadian Field Artillery, November 1916; trained as a pilot as Camp Borden, spring of 1917; commissioned in RFC, 23 July 1917; graded as Flying Officer, 15 September 1917. To No.81 Squadron, 14 August 1917; to France in October 1917. To No.66 Squadron, 13 October 1917; to Italy in December 1917. See University of Toronto Rolls of Service. Became a lawyer; appointed KC, 1935. Died in Toronto, 16 September 1960.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He destroyed five enemy machines and drove down one out of control. He is a very fine patrol leader and an excellent officer. His work is thoroughly good, all round.

 

BELL, Captain Hilliard Brook - Italian Bronze Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

NOTE: A biography of him by Harry Creagen was published in an early issue of the Journal of the Canadian Historical Society, and a 15-page memoire is included in the Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum). His victory list is as follows:

 

4 February 1918 - Offensive Patrol, 8,000 feet, 12.50 p.m. - one Albatross D.III in flames mile SW of San Giacomo.

6 February 1918 - Aviatik two-seater crashed SE of San Giacomo aerodrome.

 

16 March 1918 - Berg or D.III driven down out of control south of La Parade.

 

19 March 1918 - D.III crashed SE corner of San Giacomo aerodrome.

 

23 April 1918 - D.V in flames, Mosciagh

 

3 May 1918 - D.III in pieces, Ormelle

 

10 May 1918 - D.III crashed and burned, M. Eatta.

 

1 July 1918 - Pfalz crahed, Coma Vezzena

 

4 July 1918 - Pflaz in pieces, west of Asiago

 

* * * * *

 

BELL, Lieutenant Stanley - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Formerly in Canadian Expeditionary Force; home given as London, England (stage manager and actor). Had been twice Mentioned in Despatches (15 June 1916 and 3 June 1918). At No.12 TDS, 7 November 1918. Not to be confused with Stanley Ross Bell (rancher, ex-CEF, serving in RFC/RAF, 13 February 1918 to 22 January 1919). No details.

 

* * * * *

 

BELL-IRVING, Lieutenant Alan Duncan - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 20 October 1916. Born in Vancouver, 28 August 1894. With CEF; attached to No.7 Squadron, 1 September to 14 December 1915 (wounded); invalided to UK, 18 December 1915; with No.60 Squadron, 30 April to 9 November 1916 (wounded); appointed Flying Officer, 15 May 1916; promoted to Captain and Flight Commander, 3 November 1916; with No.66 Squadron, 25 March to 23 August 1917. To Home Establishment, 23 August 1917; promoted to Major and Squadron Commander, 31 January 1918 on joining School of Special Flying; to Redcar, 26 March 1918; to Leysdown, 4 April 1918; to No.3 Training Group, 1 August 1918; relinquished commission, 24 June 1919. Insurance agent between the wars, active in veterans' groups and RCAF Auxiliary; attended Coronation of 1937 as part of RCAF contingent. When applying for a private pilot's license in 1928 he stated he had flown 100 hours as an observer and 465 hours as a pilot. Joined RCAF Auxiliary as a Squadron Leader, 1 October 1932; promoted to Wing Commander, 1 October 1937; promoted to Group Captain, 15 June 1940. Relinquished commission, 20 November 1945. Awarded OBE (Civil), 6 July 1946. Died in Vancoouver, 24 April 1965. Medals and logbook with RCAF Memorial Museum, Trenton, Ontario.

 

For gallantry and skill in attacking a hostile balloon at 1,000 feet under heavy fire and bringing it down in flames. On a previous occasion he brought down a hostile machine.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has the original recommendation as forwarded from 3rd Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Royal Flying Corps Headquarters on 17 September 1916.

 

Skill and gallantry. On 14th September 1916, at 6.45 p.m., near Avesnes les Bapaume, Lieutenant Bell-Irving attacked a hostile balloon at 1,000 feet and brought it down in flames. Anti-aircraft fire was heavy and accurate. Lieutenant Bell-Irving brought down a hostile machine on the 28th August, 1916, which was seen by a pilot of another squadron to be wrecked on landing.

 

BELL-IRVING, Lieutenant Alan Duncan - Bar to Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 January 1917.

 

For conspicuous gallantry in action. He displayed great courage and skill when escorting a bombing raid. He engaged several enemy machines and drove them off. Afterwards, although his own machine was damaged, he continued to fight against superior numbers of the enemy.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation as sent from 3rd Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 20 November 1916:

 

On 9th instant when escorting a bombing raid, our bombing machines were attacked by a large number of hostile aeroplanes shortly after crossing the lines.

 

Lieutenant Bell-Irving, who was leading the scout escort, attacked at once and drove off an aeroplane which was engaging one of our bombing machines; his own machine and engine were hit during the encounter.

 

He then engaged in turn three other German aeroplanes, driving off one and causing another to go down apparently out of control; the third hostile aeroplane succeeded in hitting Lieutenant-Bell-Irving's engine and setting on fire his signalling lights. While trying to extinguish the fire he lost control and eventually succeeded in reaching our lines opposite Le Transloy.

 

Lieutenant Bell-Irving displayed great gallantry in continuing to fight against superior numbers after his own machine had been damaged.

 

The majority of the above fights took place north of Bapaume. At some time during the fighting Lieutenant Bell-Irving was wounded in both legs.

 

BELL-IRVING, Captain Alan Duncan - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 May 1917.

 

* * * * *

 

BELL-IRVING, Captain Angus - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 September 1917. Home on Denman Island, British Columbia; appointed 2nd Lieutenant for duty with RFC, 2 August 1916; captain in RFC, 7 July 1917; acting Major in RAF, 1 April 1918. Posted to No.66 Squadron, 21 January 1917; to No.88 Squadron, 7 September 1917; at No.7 TDS, 7 November 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. During the last five months he has taken part in many offensive patrols, the majority of which have entailed very heavy fighting. He has on numerous occasions attacked enemy formations double the strength of his own and dispersed them. On one occasion by his gallantry and self-sacrifice he saved another machine from certain destruction during continuous and severe fighting with ten enemy machines, returning to his lines with his own machine so shot about that is was unfit for any further use. His gallantry and devotion to duty have on all occasions deserved the highest praise.

 

BELL-IRVING, Major Angus - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per Air Ministry List dated 22 January 1919.

 

* * * * *

 

BELL-IRVING, Captain Malcolm McBean - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1916. Home in Vancouver; attended University of British Columbia. Gazetted 2nd Lieutenant in RFC, September 1914; issued Royal Aero Club Certificate No.928 on 9 October 1914. With No.1 Squadron, 29 December 1914 to 19 December 1915 (wounded); with No.34 Squadron, 10 April 1916 and then to No.1 Squadron the same day, serving until 16 June 1916 (wounded seriously - he had been lightly wound on 16 April 1916). To Canada on instructional duties, March 1917; in flying accident, 8 February 1918; discharged in October 1918. Died in Victoria, February 1943. See University of British Columbia Roll of Service. The Canadian War Museum holds his DSO and MC (AN 19760140-001).

 

BELL-IRVING, Captain Malcolm McBean - Distinguished Service Order - Awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1916.

 

For conspicuous and consistent gallantry and skill during a period of nine months in France, notably on December 19th, 1915, between Lille and Ypres, when he successfully engaged three hostile machines. The first he drove off, the second he sent to the ground in flames, and the third nose-dived and disappeared. He was then attacked by three other hostile machines from above, but he flew off towards Ypres, and chased a machine he saw in that direction. He overhauled it and had got to within a hundred yards when he was wounded by a shell and had to return.

 

BELL-IRVING, Captain Malcolm McBean - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 15 June 1916.

 

BELL-IRVING, Captain Malcolm McBean - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 27 July 1916.

 

For conspicuous gallantry when on a photographic reconnaissance. When very seriously wounded in the head by fire from an anti-aircraft gun, and half blinded by blood, he steered for the nearest aerodrome and, feeling that he could not last out, landed safely in a small field well within our lines. After giving orders for the safe delivery of his photos he collapsed. His pluck and skill saved his observer.

 

* * * * *

 

BELL-IRVING, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard - Officer, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 7 January 1918. Born 31 May 1888; home in Vancouver (engaged in salmon canning industry); enlisted in 29th Battalion. Transferred from CEF to RFC, 29 Janaury 1916; became a wing instructor in gunnery with RFC, 14 September 1916. Had been appointed Flying Officer, 20 July 1916. Made Commandant, No.2 School of Aerial Gunnery, January 1917. Relinquished commission, 9 April 1919. RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 notes he had flown in Shorthorns, BE.2c, BE.2e, Avros, Martinside Scouts and Bristol Scouts. "Aerial Gunnery: passed course at Hynthe with honours, August 1916; since when has been instructing and organizing instruction in aerial gunnery." Died 29 April 1962.

 

BELL-IRVING, Lieutenant Colonel Richard - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 13 March 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BELWAY, Captain Frank - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918. Born in Winchester, Ontario, 15 March 1892. Home in Richmond, Ontario; attended Manitoba Agricultural College, 1911-1915. He took an officer's course in Winnipeg, 1915, but enlisted in the ranks of the 203rd Battalion, CEF, 9 May 1916, proceeding to England on 24 October 1916; attained rank of Sergeant, 1 December 1916. On command to Officer Training Centre, Oxford, 15 April 1917; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (pilot), 27 July 1917. With No.13 Squadron, 10 December 1917 to 23 November 1918. Commissioned in RCAF, 10 August 1940 and given rank of Flight Lieutenant; Squadron Leader, 1 August 1941; Wing Commander, 1 June 1943; released, 23 March 1945, having served as an administrative officer at Trenton, Toronto, Lachine, Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax, Lachine and Aylmer.

 

A very gallant officer who is always ready to volunteer for any dangerous duty. During recent operations he has repeatedly brought back most valuable information regarding the development of the situation, flying at very low altitudes and being subjected to heavy hostile fire. On August 25th during a patrol, he observed an enemy two-seater calling for flares; attacking the machine he drove it off, the enemy infantry having lit their flares, Lieutenant Belway descending to a very low altitude in face of heavy machine gun fire, was able to obtain most accurate information as to the location of the enemy line.

 

NOTE: An undated Air Ministry report adds further information:

 

Flight Commander, No.13 Squadron; during the recent operations on this front, has repeatedly brought back and dropped at Corps and Divisional Headquarters very valuable information regarding the development of the situation. To obtain these reports he had to fly low through heavy machine gun fire.

 

* * * * *

 

*BENNETT, Lieutenant Louis - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 12 January 1920, citing Sir Douglas Haig's Despatches of 16 March 1919. The following information is entirely from the papers of Harry Creagen, held by the National Aviation Museum. Born 22 September 1894; home in Brooklyn, New York. Enlisted in CEF, Camp Borden, 25 September 1916 in 213th Battalion (Service Number 264553). When that unit moved to St.Catharines, Ontario on 16 December 1916, he deserted; a Court of Inquiry ruled him a deserter, with effect from 4 January 1917. He subsequently joined the RFC and was commissioned 21 January 1918; graded as a Flying Officer, 6 March 1918; to No.90 Squadron, 31 May 1918; to BEF, France, 20 July 1918; joined No.40 Squadron, 21 July 1918, and was missing in action, 24 August 1918 (although he may have died as late as 7 October 1918). In August 1929 the Canadian Army formally cancelled the Part II Orders which declared him a deserter and substituted an entry to the effect that he had been struck off strength of the CEF for purposes of enlisting in the RAF (although in 1916 it was the RFC - not the RAF - and he was more than a year as a "free spirit" before joining the flying services. It would seem that his mother had applied for a Memorial Cross, which the Department of Militia could not issue to a deserter; inquiries had been made in England to establish whether he had an honourablle record. The RAF supplied his Record of Service (18 July 1929), adding:

 

I am to add that according to the records of this Department, Lieutenant Bennett during his service in France was officially credited with eight enemy balloons destroyed, four of which were destroyed in one day (19th August 1918); two enemy machines crashed, and one shot down out of control.

 

NOTE: His death was reported in Flight, 4 September 1919, as follows:

 

Lieutenant Louis Bennett, 40th Squadron, RAF, BEF, reported "missing" on August 24, 1918, is now officially reported as killed in action, having been shot down in flames after destroying two enemy observation balloons. He was an American and the only son of Hon, and Mrs. Louis Bennett of West Virginia. When the United States declared war he left Yale, and raised and trained at his own expense the West Virginia Flying Corps which he offered to his government to serve as a unit in France, like the Lafayette Escadrille. This being refused, he joined the RFC, and came over with the Canadians, in order to get into action. His record between August 15 and 24 was three enemy planes and nine balloons destroyed - four in one day - for which he was congratulated and recommended for the DFC.

 

The following victories are recorded in the Creagen Papers (there may be more, if the above statements are correct as to his score):

 

15 August 1918 - SE.5A E3947, 12 noon, Offensive Patrol, 7-5,000 feet, at Brebieres. Saw five enemy aircraft, selected one going east, cut off enemy aircraft, fired short burst 40 rounds at 80 yards down to a few feet. Enemy aircraft fell out of control. Seen by Lieutenant Willis. Combat Report annotated "1 out of control", but apparently not reported in communiques.

 

17 August 1918 - SE.5As E3183 (Lieutenant F.H. Knobel), E3937 (Lieutenant L. Bennett), 7.40 a.m., east of Henin Lietard. Knobel - dived to attack LVG two-seater. Attacking from above, saw it crash south of Henin Lietard. Bennett - At 13,000 feet saw Knobel dive on enemy aircraft two-seater. I dived east to intercept enemy aircraft. Fired at this enemy aircraft 250 rounds - crashed south of Henin Lietand. Combat Report annotated "1 Crash" and reported in RAF Communique No.20.

 

19 August 1918 - SE.5A E3947 - Offensive patrol, 10.00 a.m., 3-2,000 feet east on Merville. (1) Left patrol due to oil trouble and was unable to catch up. Saw series of enemy kite balloons and chose most easterly one east of Merville. Dived from 11,000 feet, fired 3/4 drum Buckingham, burst into flames and observer parachuted. (2) 10.10 a.m., 2-1,000 feet, east of Merville - Chose second enemy kite balloon, fired, enemy kite balloon burst into flames; observer parachuted. Both attacks under intense machine gun fire. Combat Report annotated "2 Balloons" and reported in RAF Communique No.21.

19 August 1918 - SE.5A E3947 - Offensive patrol, 1.40 p.m., east of Mervalle. (1) Came through clouds from north, fired drum Buckingham ammunition. Observer parachuted and balloon went down in flames - 2,000 feet. (2) Attacked second balloon at 500 feet, fired drum Buskingham. Gun jammed but enemy kite balloon was on fire on ground. Combat Report annotated "2 Balloons" and reported in RAF Communique No.21.

22 August 1918 - SE.5A C9258 - Offensive patrol and bombing east of La Bassee - 2 balloons. (1) After bombing Gondecourt aerodrome, saw balloon west of village. Fired drum of Buckingham, balloon caught fire; observer got away in parachute. (2) Saw two balloons further north and attacked higher one; drum and it went down in flames. Second balloon was pulled down. Combat Report annotated "2 Balloons" and reported in RAF Communique No.21.

 

23 August 1918 - SE.5A C9258 - Offensive patrol, 7.15 a.m. One two-seater crashed. Saw three two-seaters near Quiery la Maotte, dived and cut one off; fired one burst from front and then got behind and fired 300 rounds. Cockpit full of smoke, observer disappeared, enemy aircraft crashed. Seen by Captain Dixon. Combat Report annotated "1 Crash" and reported in RAF Communique No.21.

 

In view of the above, an entry in Flight, 9 January 1919, is poignant:

 

Mrs. Lois Bennett, whose son Louis lost his life flting with the RAF, has offered 100 to the Aero Club of America as a prize for a competition to develop parachutes to be used in escaping from aeroplanes which are out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

BENNETT, Lieutenant Reginald Calvert - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born in Flesherton, Ontario, 10 February 1893; home in Toronto (salesman). Enlisted there in 19th Battalion, 9 November 1914. Wounded September 1916 and hospitalized until December. To RFC as 2nd Lieutenant, 29 August 1917. With No.18 Squadron, 10 April to 27 September 1918 (wounded and taken prisoner).

 

This officer has carried out thirty-seven bomb raids, twelve photographic flights and eleven reconnaissances. In many of these operations he has met with serious opposition, and frequently adverse weather conditions have greatly interfered with his work. Gallantry and doggedly he has faced all difficulties and has rendered most valuable service.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation submitted on 19 August 1918 from Headquarters, 1st Brigade, Royal Air Force to Headquarters, Royal Air Force.

 

For most conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. he has carried out 37 successful bomb raids, 12 successful photographic flights and 11 reconnaissances.

 

On 14 August 1918, when he led a bomb raid on Marquain aerodrome, he piloted his machines through a most intense anti-aircraft barrage, crossing the lines at 10,000 feet and bombing his objective from 9.500 feet, the height at which he was ordered to do so. Successful hits were obtained on the aerodrome and hangars and he carried out the work conscientiously and well. During the flight several machines were hit by anti-aircraft fire, one machine being brought down by a direct hit, and Lieutenant Bennett's machine had one wheel shot away, causing it to turn over on landing.

 

He has been deputy leader on the raids on Somain and Douai on 11 August 1918, 12 August 1918 and 13 August 1918, and particularly good work was done by him on the following dates:-

 

On 10 July 1918, in a flight lasting 3 hours he obtained 33 successful E.B. [enemy battery ?] photos through cloud gaps.

 

On 1 July 1918, he obtained 18 successful E.B. photos covering all points required.

 

On 8 June 1918, during a flight lasting three hours and 35 minutes, he exposed 25 plates, despite the fact he was continually harassed by numerous enemy machines.

 

On 5 June 1918, when on photography south of Laventie he was attacked by five enemy scouts; he dived on one which he shot down completely out of control.

 

* * * * *

 

*BENNETT, Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Victor Sydney - Croix de Guerre with Palm (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Served with Royal Newfoundland Regiment, July 1916 to May 1917 when he transferred to Royal Flying Corps; served with No.80 Squadron, January 1918 onwards; aged 20 when recommended for award. Public Record Office Air 1/1838/204/208/13 has a hand-written letter from Major Douglas Bell (Commanding Officer, No.80 Squadron) to Headquarters, 51st Wing, Royal Air Force, dated 20 July 1918. The writing in places is difficult to make out.

 

The name of Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Victory Sydney Bennett, Royal Newfoundland Regiment, attached Royal Air Force, lately of No.80 Squadron, RAF and was of No.54 Squadron is submitted for consideration of a French award for his excellent work during the present operation with them and when this squadron was at Fouquerolles. As a deputy leader he has at all times backed up his Flight Commander with the greatest determination and courage.

 

On the 18th inst. Captain [A.H.] Whistler who was leading a squadron function [?] (which was cooperating with a bombing operation] was obliged to drop out before crossing the lines; Lieutenant Bennett immediately took his place and led the formation with the greatest gallantry and skill. When about 15 miles over the line Lieutenant Bennett attacked and drove off with his patrol 15 enemy machines which were attacking the bombing machines and engaged them for about 25 minutes, enabling the bombers to recross the lines unmolested. Lieutenant Bennett himself brought down two enemy machines out of control (it was impossible to get these confirmed for their final destruction) and used practically the whole of his ammunition. Notwithstanding this, he turned back and drove off some enemy machines which were attacking a single Camel, collected his patrol with the loss of only one machine in spite of a very strong adverse wind and brought them safely back to our lines.

 

I consider this officer is thoroughly deserving of some recognition.

 

This was accompanied by an undated text, typed on a British typewriter (no accents except those added in pencil):

 

Excellents services dans la zone Francaise au cours des derniers operations.

 

Exercant par interim le commandement de son peleton, a toujours rendu le plus grande services a son chef d'escadrille - a constamment fait preuve de courage et d'activite.

 

Le 18 Juillet, protegeant une expedition de bombardement, le chef de sa patrouille ayant du abandonner, fait sa place, conduisit sa patrouille a 15 kilometres [sic] dans les lignes, ou il mit en fuite une formation de 15 avions ennemis, permettant ainsi aux bombardiers de remplir leur mission. A personnellement contraint deux appareils ennemis a attierrir desempares. Ses munitions etant epuisses, piqua sur les avions ennemis qui attacqaient sa patrouille et reussit a ramener celle ci en n'ayant pendu qu'un seul appareil.

 

* * * * *

 

BENTLEY, 2nd Lieutenant Richard Reed - Military Cross- awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 January 1918; citation with account of deed in London Gazette dated 25 June 1918. Born in England; enlisted in 34th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, Sarnia, Ontario, August 1915. Seconded as Lance-Corporal to RFC, 5 April 1917; appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 23 July 1917; Acting Captain, 1 April 1918.

 

When information was urgently required during an attack, and several attempts to obtain it had been unsuccessful owing to exceptionally bad weather conditions, he went out and succeeded in gaiing the necessary information, flying at a height of about 50 feet under heavy rifle and machine gun fire. He had already made a flight under similar conditions on the same day. His pluck and determination were a fine example to his squadron.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation submitted by Headquarters, 3 Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps on 24 November 1917; this identifies his unit clearly as No.59 Squadron.

 

For skill and gallantry.

 

On November 20th information was urgently required as to the position of our troops and the condition of certain bridges. Several attempts had bee made to get this information, but had been unsuccessful owing to the exceptionally bad weather conditions. Finally 2nd Lieutenant Bentley went out at 2.30 p.m. and in spite of the fact that the clouds and mist were only at 50 feet he succeeded in obtaining the information required, in the course of a flight lasting one hour, and in the face of very heavy machine gun and rifle fire. This was the second occasion on which this officer had completed a successful reconnaissance that day, the first being carried out in the morning under very similar weather conditions.

 

This officer again carried out a successful contact patrol on the 21st instant, also under very bad weather conditions. His pluck and determination have been a fine example to his squadron.

 

* * * * *

 

BERTHE, Captain Robert Mathieu - Croix de Guerre with Palme (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 November 1918. Born 21 September 1893; home in Montreal (commercial traveller); joined RNAS in Ottawa as Probationary Flight Officer, 19 April 1917; at Manstone (under instruction), 18 September 1917 and 18 December 1917; with 61st Wing, 18 June 1918; further reported with No.61 Wing, No.217 Squadron, 18 September 1nd 18 December 1918. With No.233 Squadron, 15 March 1919 when he applied for CAF commission. No citation published. Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has extract from Beglian Army Order 647 dated 18 October 1918:

 

Commande avec beacoup d'autorite son detachment. A travaille sans interuption pendant les huit derniers mois, effectuant 41 raids de bombardement et 81 patrouilles contre sous-marines.

 

Appelle, a partir du 28 septembre, a conduire son unite au-dessus d'une region completement nouvelle a par son energie, obtenu un plein succes.

 

BERTHE, Captain Robert Mathieu - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/74 has a report on him dated 21 August 1918 from Major W.L. Welsh, Commanding Officer, No.217 Squadron to General Officer Commanding, No.5 Group:

Recommended for promotion to the rank of Temporary Captain. This officer has served in France as a Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Royal Naval Air Service, and Lieutenant, Royal Air Force, since February 1918. He is a capable Flight Leader.

 

* * * * *

 

*BESSETTE, Captain Claver Victor - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1918. Born 6 August 1997 in New Bedford, Connecticut; home in Hartford; French-Canadian parents. Took some seaplane instruction in 1914 at Hammondsport but did not fly tests due to bond requirement. Taken on strength of RNAS in Ottawa, 12 February 1916; awarded Royal Aero Club Certificate No.3125, 23 June 1916. Trained at Northern Aircraft School; at Felixstowe as seaplane pilot, 18 March 1918; to Campania, 30 May 1917; at Killingholme as of 18 December 1917; at Dover, April 1919 when he accepted permanent RAF commission. No citation.

 

* * * * *

 

BEST, Lieutenant Lewis Edward - Air Force Cross - award effective 2 February 1919 as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Home in Victoria, British Columbia. Enlisted in CEF in early 1915. As a Sergeant in 67th Battalion, he transferred to RNAS in June 1917. With RFC in Canada; returned as a Lieutenant to Britain, 1 April 1918 (may have been an instructor). On 16 June 1919 he was at RAF Base Depot, Aboukir, having been with No.269 Squadron, Seaplane Base, Port Said until 9 June 1919 (RG.9 C.14 Folder 15). Awarded specifically for services in Egypt. Public Record Office Air 1/1717 has a recommendation for the AFC dated 28 October 1918. It states he had flown approximately 340 days in the previous year and was then with the Seaplane Squadron, Port Said. It dates his appointment in the RNAS from 10 June 1917, duties in sea patrols from 13 November 1917, and service in Egypt and Palestine from 15 March 1918 to date. It also states that he had been Mentioned in Despatches, 17 December 1917 (not confirmed as of 30 August 2000). Signed by one P.L. Holmes, the document declares:

 

This officer has carried out long sea patrols in a most satisfactory manner, in spite of the fact that only negative results have been obtained.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1717 also has recommended citation put forward by Headquarters, No.64 (Naval) Wing, on 31 October 1918.

 

This officer has been one of the most regular seaplane pilots at Port Said, and has carried out long sea patrols in a most satisfactory manner, both as regards escorting convoys and also submarine patrols.

 

* * * * *

 

BICKNELL, Lieutenant Frank Russell - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born 2 July 1898; home in Dunnville, Ontario (student); joined RNAS in Ottawa, 19 April 1917. To Cranwell, 18 September 1917; to Eastchurchec as observer under instruction, 18 December 1917; To Yarmouth, then in February 1918 to Bulgaria; undertook sea patrols in Mudros-Dardenelles and Aegean. To south Russia; injured 28 June (flying from Talikna) and/or injured 29 July 1918 (Gulf of Xeros); in Caspian, 28 June 1919. Postings very confusing; see London Gazette, supplement of 7 October 1919, dated 9 October 1919. Qualified in dentistry at University of Toronto after the war.

 

BICKNELL, Lieutenant Frank Russell - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 December 1919.

 

For bombing raid on on Russian flotilla at Alexandrovsk on 21 May 1919.

 

* * * * *

 

BIGGAR, Lieutenant Percival Elliott - Chevalier of the Order of the Crown (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 25 July 1918. Born in Ottawa, 3 October 1895. Graduate of Royal Military College; home in Ottawa. Canadian Army Service Corps; seconded to RFC, 19 March 1917; with No.34 Squadron, 15 August 1917 to 9 April 1918 and thence to Canada. Graded as Flying Officer. 8 September 1917. Notwithstanding cards held by Directorate of History and Heritage, Public Records Office Air 1/1169/204/5/2592 gives his unit as No.52 Squadron and suggests he was invested with his awards as early as 27 February 1918, even though gazetting came much later.

 

BIGGAR, Lieutenant Percival Elliott - Croix de Guerre (Belgium) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 25 July 1918).

* * * * *

 

BIRKS, Lieutenant Gerald Alfred - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918. Home in Montreal (student). Wounded with CEF, November 1916. Joined RFC in Canada, 8 March 1917, training at Deseronto and Camp Borden; commissioned 13 August 1917 and graded as Flying Officer, 15 January 1918. Overseas again, November 1917. At No.4 TDS, 15 December 1917. With No.66 Squadron, 12 March to 1 July 1918; to Canada on 2 October 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in destroying six enemy aeroplanes, two of which fell on our side of the lines.

 

BIRKS, Lieutenant Gerald Alfred - Bar to Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in destroying four enemy aeroplanes, two of which were destroyed in one fight.

 

NOTE: Harry Creagen papers (National Aviation Museum) have notes from Air 1/204/148/19 listing victories as follows:

 

18 March 1918 - Rumpler two-seater crashed near Pravis Domini aerodrome.

 

24 March 1918 - Aviatik two-seater in flames SE of Conegliand.

 

2 May 1918 - D.III crashed, LeVico

 

4 May 1918 - two D.IIIs in flames, Vidor (fell in our lines)

 

11 May 1918 - D.III in flames, Torre de Mosto

 

19 May 1918 - two Bergs crashed, Bogo (in one fight)

 

20 May 1918 - Berg crashed, Farra di Soligo.

 

24 May 1918 - Berg crashed, M. Cappolo

 

9 June 1918 - D.V in flames, east of Levico.

 

21 June 1918 - D.III in pieces, Matta.

 

* * * * *

 

BISHOP, Lieutenant William Avery - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 May 1917. Born in Owen Sound, Ontario, 8 February 1894. Attended Royal Military College. To No.37 Squadron, 8 December 1916; to Central Flying School, 21 December 1916. With No.60 Squadron, 7 March to 22 May 1917; with No.85 Squadron, 22 May to 19 June 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He attacked a hostile balloon on the ground, dispersed the crew and destroyed the balloon, and also drove down a hostile machine which attacked him. He has on several other occasions brought down hostile machines.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation sent by Commander, 3rd Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 8 April 1917:

 

For skill and gallantry. On the 7th April he came down to 50 feet, attacked a hostile kite balloon on the ground near Remy, dispersing the balloon crew in all directions and destroying the balloon, although attacked by an enemy machine which he drove down.

 

Previously on the 25th March near St.Leger assisted in bringing down a hostile aeroplane which he followed almost to the ground.

 

On the 31st March he shot down an Albatross Scout near Gavrelle.

 

On the 6th April he drove down single handed an Albatross Scout near Cherisy.

 

BISHOP, Captain William Avery - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 June 1917.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. While in a single seater he attacked three hostile machines, two of which he brought down, although in the meantime he was himself attacked by four other hostile machines. His courage and determination have set a fine example to others.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation sent by Commander, 3rd Brigade, Royal Flying Corps to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps on 7 May 1917.

 

Very conspicuous gallantry and skill. On the 2nd May near Dury, Captain Bishop on a single-seater attacked three hostile machines. He fired 15 rounds into the rear machine which fell completely out of control and was seen to crash. He was then attacked by a two-seater machine into which he fired 40 rounds, whereupon the hostile machine fell in a spinning nose dive completely out of control, although in the meantime Captain Bishop was attacked by four other hostile machines.

 

Previously, on the 23rd April, he attacked a hostile two-seater machine ding artillery work at close range, forcing it to land near Vitry. He then followed the machine down to the ground and emptied a drum of ammunition into the machine. Neither the pilot nor the observer was seen to get out of their machine. In the sam flight he attacked three Albatross Scouts which were attacking another machine, shooting one down, which was seen to crash and driving the other two away.

 

During the last month this officer has destroyed thirteen hostile machines and two kite balloons and has frequently gone down to very low altitudes on the other side of the lines to obtain these successes. His courage and determination have set an excellent example to other pilots of this Brigade.

 

BISHOP, Captain William Avery - Victoria Cross - awarded with effect from 27 June 1917 as per London Gazette dated 11 August 1917.

 

For most conspicuous bravery, determination and skill.

 

Captain Bishop, who had been sent out to work independently, flew first of all to an enemy aerodrome; finding no machine about, he flew on to another aerodrome about three miles south-east, which was at least twelve miles the other side of the line. Seven machines, some with their engines running, were on the ground. He attacked these from about fify feet, and a mechanic, who was starting one of the engines, was seen to fall. One of the machines got off the ground, but at a height of sixty feet, Captain Bishop fired fifteen rounds into it at very close range, and it crashed to the ground. A second machine got off the ground, into which he fired thirty rounds at 150 yards range, and it fell into a tree.

 

Two more machines then rose from the aerodrome. One of these he engaged at a height of 1,000 feet, emptying the rest of his drum of ammunition. This machine crashed 300 yards from the aerodrome, after which Captain Bishop empied a whole drum into the fourth hostile machine, and flew back to his station.

 

Four hostile scouts were about 1,000 feet above him for about a mile of his return journey, but they would not attack. His machine was very badlly shot about by machine-gun fire from the ground.

 

BISHOP, Captain William Avery - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 11 December 1917.

 

BISHOP, Captain William Avery - Bar to Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 September 1917; citation in London Gazette dated 9 January 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty when engaging hostile aircraft. His consistent dash and great fearlessness have set a magnificent example to the pilots of his squadron. He has destroyed no less than 45 hostile machines within the past five months, frequently attacking enemy formations single handed, and on all occasions displaying a fighting spirit and determination to get to close quarters with his opponents which have earned the admiration of all in contact with him.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1515 has recommendation sent by Headquarters, Third Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 27 August 1917.

 

For great skill and gallantry.

 

On 13th August, Captain Bishop when out alone south of Douai attacked three Albatros Scouts. Opening fire at the nearest at 300 yards, he drove it down in flames. Captain Bishop then dived at the second scout, the third machine firing at him all the time. After firing about 20 rounds, the second enemy machine burst into flames and crashed to the ground.

 

Previously, on June 28th, when again out by himself, Captain Bishop attacked four Albatros Scouts south of the La Basse Canal, one of which he crashed, the machine falling with both left hand planes off.

 

This officer, since June 2nd, when his name was last brought to the notice of the Army Commander, has destroyed 23 hostile machines and by his great gallantry and dash in offensive work has set an excellent example to the pilots of his squadron.

 

He has destroyed 45 hostile machines between the 25th March 1917 and the 13th August 1917.

 

Air 1/1515 has an earlier recommendation sent by Brigadier J.F.A. Higgins (3rd Brigade) to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, this one dated 6 July 1917. It is peculiar in that different events are cited. There is nothing to indicate why this earlier recommendation failed to succeed.

 

For great skill and gallantry.

 

On the 26th June Captain Bishop attacked three hostile scouts protecting a two-seater machine. Diving on the top one, he fired 25 rounds at close range, bringing it down in flames. He then engaged one of the remaining scouts which, after a short engagement, fell completely out of control. The remaining scout and hostile two seater were driven east.

 

Previously, on the 24th June,Captain Bishop attacked five Albatross Scouts, bringing one down in flames, which he engaged at a range of 20 yards.

 

This officer since May 7th, when his name was last brought to the notice of the Army Commander, has destroyed twelve hostile machines and by his gallantry and dash in offensive work has set an excellent example to the pilots of his squadron.

 

BISHOP, Major William Avery - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 July 1918; citation published in London Gazette dated 3 August 1918.

 

A most successful and fearless fighter in the air, whose acts of outstanding bravery have already been recognized by the awards of the Victoria Cross, Distinguished Service Order, Bar to the Distinguished Service Order and Military Cross.

 

For the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross now bestowed upon him he has rendered signally valuable services in personally destroying twenty-five enemy machines in twelve days, five of which he destroyed on his last day of service at the front. The total number of machines destroyed by this distinguished officer is seventy-two, and his value as a moral factor to the Royal Air Force cannot be overestimated.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation submitted by 2nd Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 19 June 1918.

 

Since bringing squadron overseas on 22 May 1918, Major Bishop has himself destroyed the following enemy aeroplanes:

 

On the 27th May 1918 One two-seater east of Passchendaele.

" 28th May 1918 Two Albatross Scouts near Cortemarck

" 20th May 1918 Two Albatross two-seaters near Roulers.

One Albatross scout over Armentieres.

" 31st May 1918 One Pfalz scout two miles north of Estaires.

" 1st June 1918 One Pfalz scout near La Gorgue

* 2nd June 1918 One Albatross scout south of Armentieres.

" 4th June 1918 One Albatross scout between Nieuport and Ostend.

" 15th June 1918 One Pfalz scout three miles east of Estaires.

" 16th June 1918 One two-seater five miles east of Armentieres.

One Albatross scout near Armentieres

" 17th June 1918 One two-seater between Staden and Hooglede.

One two-seater near Sailly-sur-le-Lys.

One Albatross scout near Laventie.

" 18th June 1918 Two scours east of Ypres.

 

In eleven days, major Bishop has destroyed 18 enemy machines; his value as a moral factor cannot be overestimated.

 

His total has now reached 67 enemy machines.

 

BISHOP, Major William Avery - Croix de Guerre avec Palme (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

BISHOP, Major William Avery - Chevalier, Legion of Honour (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BLACKIE, Lieutenant William Matthew - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 April 1918. Home in Toronto; seconded from CEF to RFC, 6 July 1917 (2nd Lieutenant); with No.10 Squadron, 5 March to 4 June 1918; posted there again, 9-25 January 1919; with No.35 Squadron, 25 January to 27 March 1919 when sent to Home Establishment. NOTE: Hitchins lists shows him as a pilot in No.35 Squadron - and engaged in combat, as of 23 December 1917. See Toronto Star, 12 June 1918 for in cockpit of what seems to be a DH.2.

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When on a special reconnaissance of two hostile works, he dived to within 300 feet of the ground, dropped his bombs near the works and then engaged with machine gun fire a number of men who were running for cover. On a previous occasion he carried out a very successful night bombing raid under the most adverse conditions. He has always shown great determination and has set a splendid example to his squadron.

 

* * * * *

 

BLACKMORE, Lieutenant George John - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919. Home in Toronto where he was an inspector of hotels and foodstuffs. Served in Air Ministry and in Canada, RAF Headquarters, Toronto as a Quartermaster.

 

* * * * *

 

*BLAKE, Captain M.B. - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). For services in Canada (Officer Commanding, No.86 Canadian Training Squadron, Camp Borden). British officer.

 

* * * * *

 

BLAKELY, Lieutenant Thomas Gordon - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Home in Winnipeg (broker and rancher); joined RFC in Canada and sailed for UK, 19 November 1917. To No.108 Squadron, 12 December 1917; to No.104 Squadron, 31 December 1917; to No.97 Squadron, 5 June 1918; to Headquarters, No.19 Wing, 12 April 1918; with No.252 Squadron as of 7 November 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BOGER, Captain William Otway - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 19 June 1896. Home in Winnipeg; attended Royal Military College (August 1913 to November 1914) and went overseas with Lord Strathcona Horse. Attached to No.11 Squadron, 18 September 1916; appointed Flying Officer (Observer) that date. Wounded 20 December 1916; to England, 30 December 1916. Trained as a pilot. With No.92 Squadron, 25 April to 10 May 1918; attached No.93 Squadron (non-operational), 10-24 May 1918; with No.56 Squadron, 24 May to 10 August 1918 (killed in action).

 

This officer has taken part in twenty-eight offensive patrols and twelve combats, accounting for four enemy aeroplanes - two destroyed in flames and two driven down out of control. As a leader he shows marked coolness and bravery, notably on a recent patrol when, as he was leading his four machines, he saw nine Pfalz scouts. Unable to rise to their height, he led his patrol just beneath them in order to tempt them to attack. As the enemy did not respond he repeated the manoeuvre; the scouts then came down, and in the engagement one was shot down out of control. Reforming his patrol he met two more scouts, one of which ge destroyed in flames.

 

* * * * *

 

BOLSBY, Lieutenant Clarence Stewart - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919. Born in Pennsylvania; trained as a tree surgeon and came to Canada in 1908 when there was a need for his talents; home in Toronto (manufacturing); joined RFC in Canada, 24 September 1917; to UK as 2nd Lieutenant, 28 February 1918; joined No.7 Squadron, 3 June 1918, serving to 7 November 1918. Returned to nursery farming after the war. Served in Toronto Scottish Regiment during Second World War; died in Toronto, 10 January 1976.

 

This officer has rendered most valuable service on numerous contact patrols. Handicapped on many occasions by difficult visibility and smoke, and subjected to severe hostile fire, he has invariably displayed marked determination and devotion to duty, locating our own and enemy troops and furnishing most reliable reports which were of the greatest assistance in our operations.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation sent by Headquarters, Second Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 9 November 1918.

 

1 November 1918. In spite of bad visibility located our advanced troops and those of the French at seven positions, Peteghem area, flying at a height of 100 to 1,000 feet.

 

31 October 1918. In spite of bad visibility, located our troops in eleven positions, coming down to 300 feet in mist, rain and in a heavy smoke barrage. His machine was much shot up by rifle and machine gun fire. Ingoyghem-Anseghem area.

 

27 October 1918. Did an excellent reconnaissance specially asked by Headquarters, II Corps at a low altitude of the Scheldt Bridges and locks from Avelghem to Berchem furnishing a complete report.

 

25 October 1918. In spite of bad visibility, located our troops from Coteghem to Sterhoek, dropping reports at the Headquarters, II Corps and the 9th and 36th Divisions.

 

17 October 1918. On the morning carried out an excellent reconnaissance of the bridges over the River Lys from Courtrai up to Oyghem furnishing a complete report in spite of bad visibility necessitating flying at 1,000 feet and under. In the afternoon he carried out another Contact Patrol and brought back valuable information as to our troops and the situation.

 

14 October 1918. During the attack on Moorseele-Ledeghem-Winkle St.Eloi-Lendelede-Gullechem. In the morning on Contact Patrol, flying from 300-600 feet in spite of smoke and heavy machine gun fire from Moorseele, located out troops along the right Division front of the Corps, the left being completely obscured by smoke. On the afternoon on Counter Attack patrol when the situation was obscure and our line west of Salines, he reconnoitred the Corps front up to the Courtrai-Iseghem Railway and located our troops along the whole Corps front from a height of 300 to 700 feet. At that time Salines was strongly held by the enemy with machine guns.

 

1 October 1918. In the morning made a good report on the position of our troops round Ledeghem, in spite of heavy machine gun fire. Two machine gun positions he attacked from 200 feet and the enemy were seen to leave.

 

During this flight he took 108 oblique photographs covering the whole Corps front. These photographs were taken from a height of about 1,000 feet, a large part of them being over the enemy's lines.

 

* * * * *

 

BOSWELL, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Henry George - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1917. Born in Cobourg, Ontario, 7 January 1892; home in Toronto; went overseas with PPCLI early in war but invalided home with rheumatism, October 1915. Attained ACA Certificate 514 at Curtiss School, Newport News, 28 June 1916. Joined RNAS in Ottawa, 27 June 1916; to UK on Sicilian, 15 July 1916; taken on strength in UK, 6 August 1916. Served at Felixstowe in 1917, and reported to Cattewater, 18 September 1917. Released 22 March 1919. Flight, issue of 17 July 1919 stated that while flying Seaplane 8663 and in company with Captain Charales Reginald Morrish, DSC, he had sunk submarine UC.36

 

In recognition of his services on 23rd Aril 1917, when with two other machines he engaged a formation of nine hostile scouts and two-seater machines. Two two-seater machines were shot down.

 

* * * * *

 

BOTTRILL, Lieutenant William Eric - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 June 1919. Born 26 September 1892. Home in Hamilton (salesman, International Silver Combine of America); served in 41st Battalion, CEF (but obituary notices say 4th Battalion or 36th Battalion; to RFC, 21 March 1918 as an observer; with No.104 Squadron, 9 July 1918. Relinquished commissioned in RAF, 13 January 1919. Credited with the following victories: 14 August 1918, one enemy aircraft destroyed; 22 August 1918, one enemy aircraft in flames; 23 October 1918, one enemy aircraft out of control. Died in Toronto, 6 October 1971. Obituary said he had served in Second World War but did not specify which service. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war." Public Record Office Air 1/1650 has recommendation sent forward by Headquarters, 8th Brigade on 16 November 1918, which also gave his previous unit as 4th Canadian Infantry Battalion.

 

Lieutenant Bottrill has shown himself a most valuable Observer in when flying with the formation leader helping his pilot to keep in touch with the other machines of the formation. He has at all times shown great skill and coolness in action. He has taken part in 20 bomb raids including attacks on Ludwigshafen and Karlsruhe.

 

BOTTRILL, Lieutenant William Eric - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 October 1919. No published citation other than "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the war."

 

* * * * *

 

*BOWLER, Lieutenant John Septimus - Commended for Valuable Services in Connection with the War - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 January 1919; for services in Canada (Paymaster, RAF Headquarters, Toronto). British officer.

 

* * * * *

 

BOYCE, Captain George Harold - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 10 October 1919. Born 26 April 1894; home in Ottawa; joined RNAS in Ottawa, 19 January 1917; arrived in UK, 11 February 1917; with No.6 Wing, 18 October 1917; to HMS Furious, 30 July 1918; to HMS Argus, 7 November 1918. Remained in RAF (reported posting to Air Ministry, 10 July 1929, as S/L); was an Air Commodore as of 1 March 1941; awarded CB for Second World War services.

 

* * * * *

 

BOYD, Lieutenant Kenneth Gordon - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 October 1917. Born 23 March 1889 (Public Records Office Air 76 says 23 March 1891; notes in Creagen papers say 23 March 1898); place of birth given variously on DHist cards as Goderich and Amberley, Ontario; educated in Ashfield, Ontario; home in Toronto (jeweller, 1910-1915); appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, 3 February 1916; arrived in UK, 27 February 1916 (HMS Victory); to Fisguard, date unclear; to White City, 17 April 1916; to Redcar, 25 April 1916; to Cranwell, 5 August 1916; to Westgate, 17 October 1916; to Dover, 7 March 1917; to Crystal Palace, 12 November 1917. DHist cards indicate a different pattern - coastal patrols in UK, September 1916 to February 1917; to Dover, 7 March 1917; to No.10 (N) Squadron, March through May (or longer), 1917; to No.12 (N) Squadron, 16 September 1917; to No.17 (N) Squadron, 1918; joined No.217 Squadron, 24 July 1918 but had left by mid-December 1918. Lived in USA from 1925 onwards and as of 1941 was an American citizen.

 

For services on patrol duties and submarine searching in Home Waters.

 

BOYD, Captain Kenneth Gordon - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BOYNTON, Flight Lieutenant Edward Stanley - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 28 November 1917. Born in Toronto, 18 March 1891; home there; appointed Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, 30 December 1915; with No.2 Wing, 27 November 1916. Injured in motorcycle accident at Westgate, 27 August 1916; Served in Eastern Mediterranean (Salonika), flying night bombing operations. Returned to Canada on sick leave and given a medical discharge, 10 September 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BOYSEN, Lieutenant Harold Koch - Silver Medal for Military Valour (Italy) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. From Kirkland Lake, Ontario (although Lieutenant Pat O'Brien, Outwitting the Hun, said he was American trained by RFC Canada). Enlisted in RFC Canada, 26 February 1917. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant and posted to UK, 16 June 1917; with No.66 Squadron, 22 August 1917 to 21 June 1918 (wounded 28 January 1918).

 

* * * * *

 

BRACKEN, 2nd Lieutenant Kenneth Oxenden - Bronze Medal for Military Valour (Italy) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 1994; home in Toronto (grain broker); served in Royal Horse Artillery and won Military Medal. Attached to DFC, 15 March 1918; appointed Flying Officer (Observer), 6 July 1918; joined No.34 Squadron, 25 May 1918; missing 27 October 1918; rejoined unit after escape, 4 November 1918. To UK, 22 November 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BRAWLEY, Captain Gerald Maurice - Mentioned for Gallant Conduct Rendered During the Period March 1 to October 1, 1918 - awarded as per London Gazette dated 30 January 1919. Born 28 March 1893. Home in Toronto (accountant); overseas with CEF, October 1916; attached to RFC, 1 July 1917; seconded to RFC and to Salonika, 5 December 1917; appointed Flying Officer, 28 January 1918; to No.17 Squadron, 15 February 1918; to No.50 Squadron [No.150 Squadron ?], 7 November 1918. Relinquished commission, 15 May 1919. RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 notes he had flown following types: Caudron, Curtiss, Avro, Sopwith Pup, SE.5, SE.5a, BE.2a, BE.2c, BE.12. "Graduated as pilot at CFS, England. Course in Aerial Gunnery at 2 School of Aerial Gunnery, Turnberry, Scotland."

 

* * * * *

 

BREADNER, Flight Lieutenant Lloyd Samuel - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 23 May 1917. Born in Carleton Place, Ontario, 14 July 1894; home in Ottawa (jeweller); received ACA Certificate 384, 28 December 1915; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, same day; sailed to UK, 12 January 1916 on Adriatic; to Dover, 29 May 1916; to No.1 Wing, Dunkirk, 18 June 1916 to March 1917; No.3 (N) Squadron, 6 March 1917 to 26 January 1918 (Flight Commander and from November 1917 onwards, Squadron Commader); at Manston (OC, TDS and War School), 26 January to 15 May 1918; Commanding Officer, No.92 Canadian Training Squadron, Camp Borden, 20 May to October 1918; No.204 Squadron, October 1918 to December 1918; OC No.204 TDS, Eastchurch, 1 January to April 1919. See Second World War data base for additional career details and awards. Died 14 March 1952. Photographs worth noting: RE 64-3007 (in Camel); RE 64-19700-7 (in Camel); RE 64-3144 (Major in RAF); RE 19700-1 (April 1918); PL-12229 (Air Marshal, 1945).

 

For conspicuous gallantry and skill in leading his patrol against hostile formations. He has himself brought down three hostile machines and forced several others to land.

 

On the 6th April 1917 he drove down a hostile machine which was wrecked while attempting to land in a ploughed field.

 

On the morning of the 11th April 1917 he destroyed a hostile machine which fell in flames, brought down another in a spinning nose dive with one wing folded up, and forced a third to land.

 

NOTE: Public Records Office Air 1/74 has a memo from Senior Officer, RNAS Dunkirk to Vice Admiral, Dover Patrol dated 17 July 1917. It recommends several officers for awards, and lists them in order of merit. Curiously, although Breadner (already recognized as having a DSC) was the first name on the list, no action appears to have been taken, although a Bar to his DSC was clearly contemplated. The recommendation in his case said:

 

This officer has served with Naval Squadron No.3 during the whole time they have been attached to the Royal Flying Corps in the field. He has had many engagements with the enemy, successfully destroying seven hostile machines and driving down nine others, one [of] the latter being a new three-seater Gotha which he brought down in our lines, the pilot and observer being taken prisoners. Flight Commander Breadner has always shown conspicuous gallantry and courage in face of the enemy, and on 1st May was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by Field Marshall, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for his good work.

Yet another document in Air 1/74 (no date on sheet sent, but circa July 1917), from Commanding Officer, No.3 (N) Squadron to Commanding Officer No.4 (N) Wing, there is a list of achievements given for Breadner, evidently in consideration for a "foreign decoration".

 

 

8 April 1917, during bombing raid - Bois de Bourlon - Albatross Scout crashed.

8 April 1917, offensive patrol, Ecourt St.Germain - Albatross Scout driven down.

11 April 1917, bombing escort, Cambrai - Albatross scout destroyed; hostile aircraft folded in air.

11 April 1917, bombing escort, Cambrai - Two-seater destroyed in flames.

23 April 1917, HA patrol, Vron - Gotha three-seater destroyed; landed in our lines.

23 April 1917, offensive patrol, Bois de Bourlon - Albatross scout destroyed in flames.

29 April 1917, escort, Bois de Garde - Albatross scout out of control (decisive).

13 May 1917, offensive patrol, Epinoy - "new Albatross Scout", driven down.

19 May 1917, offensive patrol, Bullecourt - two-seater Aviatik driven down.

20 May 1917, offensive patrol, south of Douai - two-seater Aviatik driven down.

23 May 1917, escort, Bourlon-Fontaine - Albatross Scout "New Type", out of control (decisive).

27 May 1917, escort, northeast of Bullecourt - Albatross scout driven down.

27 May 1917, escorting FE2b aircraft, northeast of Bullecourt - Albatross scout driven down.

27 May 1917, escort, northeast of Bullecourt - Albatross scout driven down.

27 May 1917, escort, east of Bullecourt - Albatross scout driven down.

12 June 1917, offensive patrol, Bapaume - two-seater Aviatik driven down.

 

* * * * *

 

BROCK, Corporal Richard - Distinguished Flying Medal - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Aeroplane dated 8 January 1919 gives service number (212506), trade (Mechanic E) and home town (Brockville, Ontario). No further details of award. He died 12 July 1919 and is buried in Hamilton, Ontario. His tombstone reads, in part, "Served as 212506 1 A.M. R.S. Blezard". It is not known why he would have enlisted under a pseudonym..

 

* * * * *

 

BRONSON, Flight Lieutenant Cecil Gordon - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 February 1918. Born in Ottawa, 18 May 1893; home there; attended Wright School, Augusta, Georgia and attained ACA Certificate No.400, 2 February 1916. Appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, Ottawa, 12 February 1916; to Westgate, 18 September 1916; to HMS Empress, 15 April 1917. Missing (prisoner of the Turks), 28 January 1918 following a night raid on Goeben, Dardenelles (seaplane forced down near Nagara); repatriated, 27 December 1918.

 

BRONSON, Flight Lieutenant Cecil Gordon - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 24 May 1919.

 

For carrying out a determined bombing attack on the Goeben on January 24-25, 1918, flying low down under heavy anti-aircraft fire.

 

AIR 1/661/17/122//659 (MG.40 D.1 Volume 14) has details of attack and a longer recommended citation, submitted 4 February 1918:

 

Flight Lieutenant C.G. Bronson, RN (Prisoner) for carrying out a determoned attack on Goeben low down under heavy anti-aircraft fire, this being his first flight at night. This officer proceeded on a second attack and failed to return having flown low in serach of ship which had been towed off, and thus being brought down by machine gun fire.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1717 has a report dated 20 December 1917 from Seaplane Depot, Port Said. Although an assessment rather than a specific award recommendation, it indicates the attitude of his superiors.

 

Very keen officer and pilot. Has taken part in many bombing raids, often descending to a low altitude to make certain of his objectives. Has carried out very good spotting work for the French cruiser Requin off the Wadi Hesy.

 

The same file has a form dated 19 March 1918 recommending him for the DSC and identifying him with HMS Egmont II. He had been a prisoner of war since 28 January 1918. A letter from the Lieutenant-Colonel commanding No.64 (Naval) Wing dated 27 November 1918 states that Bronson and Lieutenant L.H. Pakenham Walsh (RAF Observer) had been "brught down by anti-aircraft fire on the occasion of their second night bombing attack on the German Battle Cruiser Goeben on the 28th January 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BROPHY, 2nd Lieutenant John Bernard - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 4 January 1917. Born 4 September 1893. Home given variously as Ottawa and St.Peters, Nova Scotia; student at McGill, 1913-1914. Appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on Probation) with RFC in Canada, 7 December 1915. Joined No.21 Squadron, May 1916; injured 8 August 1916 (hit lorry on landing). Returned to unit and on 10 October "drove off several enemy aircraft behind the lines" which was likely why he got Mention in Despatches (RG.9, C.14, folder 18). To Home Establishment, 23 November and sent to No.33 (Home Defence) Squadron. Killed with that unit in flying accident, Kirton Lindsay, Lincolnshire, 24 December 1916.

 

* * * * *

 

BROUGHALL, Flying Officer Herbert Seton - Order of St.Anne, 3rd Class, with Swords (White Russia) - awarded as per unknown date and authority; listed by Ray Brough, White Russian Awards to British and Commonwealth Servicemen During the Allied Intervention in Russia 1918-1920 (London, Tom Donovan Publishing, 1991), which spells name "Broughal". Home in Toronto and attended Upper Canada College. Joined British Army in England, 1915; awarded Military Cross, London Gazette dated 22 September 1916 for service with Royal Sussex Regiment (first time under fire). To RNAS, 3 December 1916. With No.10 (N) Squadron, 7 August to 21 September 1917. Shot down on latter date (or 22nd) and became POW. Repatriated in December 1918; sent to Russia, April 1919 (No.47 Squadron). Later awarded Distinguished Flying Cross as per London Gazette dated 11 June 1924 "for distinguished service rendered during operations in Kurdistan between 15th February and 19th June 1923." Flight of 29 November 1923 reports him as going to No.216 Squadron, 14 October 1923. Aeroplane of 3 February 1932 reports him going to No.22 Squadron, 8 January 1932. Remained in RAF and rose to Group Captain. Barker once asked that he be seconded to RCAF.

 

BROUGHALL, Flying Officer Herbert Seton - Order of St.Stanislaus, 3rd Class, with Swords (White Russia) - awarded as per unknown date and authority; listed by Ray Brough, White Russian Awards to British and Commonwealth Servicemen During the Allied Intervention in Russia 1918-1920 (London, Tom Donovan Publishing, 1991) which spells name "Broughal".

 

* * * * *

 

BROWN, Flight Lieutenant Arthur Roy - Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1917. Born 23 December 1893 in Carleton Place, Ontario; educated there and in Edmonton (1913-1915). Attended Wright School, Dayton, Ohio and attained ACA Certificate No.361, 24 November 1915; appointed Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant in Ottawa, 15 November 1915; sailed from New York on 2 December 1915; to Chingford, 15 November 1915; to Eastchurch Gunnery School, 8 September 1916; Cranwell, 1 January 1917 (sick and attending "G" Course); to Dover Air Station, 24 January 1917; No.9 (N) Squadron, 10 March 1917; sick on 20 April 1917; returned to No.9 (N) Squadron, 10 May 1917; to No.11 (N) Squadron, 23 May 1917; sick 25 May to 2 June 1917; to No.9 (N) Squadron, 2 August 1917 through to 30 April 1918 (with time off in late 1917 for leave in Canada). Wounded 30 September 1917; at No.24 General Hospital, 30 April to 16 June 1918; to No.2 Fighting School, 6 July 1918; injured 15 or 17 July 1918 but continued to be on nominal roll of No.2 Fighting School; admitted to Eaton Square Hospital, 15 February 1919; duties dispensed with, 1 August 1919; discharged 8 November 1919; Public Records Office Air 76 has notation, "see Air Ministry file 956719/29 which raises the question as to whether this officer brought down the German pilot named Captain M.von Richthofen." Died in Stouffville, Ontario, 9 March 1944. Ranks as follows: Temporary Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 15 November 1915; confined in rank, Probationary Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 6 September 1916 (with effect from 15 November 1915); Flight Sub-Lieutenant, 31 August 1917; Acting Flight Lieutenant, 29 September 1917; confirmed as Flight Lieutenant, 1 October 1917; Acting Flight Commander from 5 October 1917 onwards. For an article on his Camel markings see Aero Modeller, February 1965.

 

For the excellent work he has done on active service.

 

On the 3rd September, 1917, he attacked a two-seater Aviatik, in company with his flight. The enemy machine was seen to dive down vertically, the enemy observer falling over on the side of the fuselage shot.

 

On the 5th September, 1917, in company with formation, he attacked an Albatross scout and two-seater, driving them away from our lines. One machine was observed to go down apparently out of control.

 

On the 15th September, 1917, whilst on patrol, he dived on two Aviatiks and three Albatross scouts, followed by his flight. He dived several times and picked out one enemy scout, firing about 200 rounds, when the enemy machine went down out of control, spinning on its back.

 

On the 20th September, 1917, whilst leading his flight, he dived on five Albatross scouts. Flight Lieutenant Brown picked out one enemy machine and opened fire. One of his guns jammed, but he carried on with the other. The enemy machine went down out of control and over on its back and remained in that position for about twenty seconds, whilst Flight Lieutenant Brown continued firing until his other gun jammed. The enemy machine then disappeared in the clouds, still on its back.

 

Another officer of the same patrol was later followed by four enemy machines, as he was separated from the formation. Both Flight Lieutenant Brown's guns were jammed, but he dived on the enemy machines and drove them off, thus undoubtably saving the pilot's life.

 

BROWN, Flight Lieutenant Arthur Roy - Bar to Distinguished Service Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 21 June 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On the 21st April, 1918, while leading a patrol of six scouts he attacked a formation of twenty hostile scouts. He personally engaged two Fokker triplanes, which he drove off; then, seeing that one of our machines was being attacked and apparently hard pressed, he dived on the hostile scout, firing the while. This scout, a Fokker triplane, nose dived and crashed to the ground. Since the award of the Distinguished Service Cross he has destroyed several other enemy aircraft and has shown great dash and enterprise in attacking enemy troops from low altitudes despite heavy anti-aircraft fire.

 

* * * * *

 

BROWN, Lieutenant Frederick Elliott - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 18 May 1917. Born 3 February 1895 in Quebec City; home there (medical student, Laval University); served overseas as a Lieutenant with 8th Canadian Infantry Battalion and Dublin Fusiliers, serving on the Western Front from March to July 1916. Appointed Flying Officer (Observer) with RFC, 4 January 1917, with effect from 29 August 1916; with No.2 Squadron, August 1916 to April 1917 (observer); trained as a pilot; with No.84 Squadron, October 1917 to 3 May 1918 (wounded). Leave in UK and Canadda followed by service as an instructor at Dover and Northolt, September 1918 to about June 1919 when repatriated and released. Manager of a lumber business in Quebec, 1920-29; commercial aviation (ground manager) in Toronto, 1929-1930; Secretary/Manager of York Downs Golf Club, 1930-1939; business manager, 1939-1940. Enlisted in RCAF, 4 April 1941 and served throughout the war as a Flight Lieutenant (Administrative Officer) at No.8 SFTS, No.1 Training Command (Tornto). Released 1 May 1945. See Harry Creagen, "Captain F.E. Brown", Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society, Summer 1964. Photo RE-22056 shows him in RCAF, 1941. Public Record Office Air 1/1158/204/5/2488 has the recommendation for his Mention in Despatches, prepared by Brigadier-General G.S. Sheppard, MC (Commanding 1st Brigade, Royal Flying Corps) and dated 9 March 1917:

 

For gallantry and devotion to duty, as Observer in No.2 Squadron, since August 29th, 1916. On 22nd October 1916 he brought down a hostile machine near Ecurie, and on 25th February 1917 he brought down a histile machine in flames over Lens.

 

BROWN, Lieutenant Frederick Elliott - Croix de Guerre (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 14 July 1917. Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent from First Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps, 1 May 1917.

 

For gallantry and skill as an observer, particularly on the following occasions:-

 

On 25th March 1917, when on Artillery Patrol, he was attacked by a hostile machine over Lens. After a short fight, the hostile machine was driven down in flames.

 

On 22nd October 1916, over Ecurie, he was attacked by two Roland Scouts. One of these was driven off and the other shot down and destroyed near Bailleul. This was confirmed by Balloon Observers. This officer has also done some excellent artillery work.

 

BROWN, Lieutenant Frederick Elliott - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 April 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Whilst leading a patrol of five machines, on observing four hostile scouts diving on one of our formations, he at once engaged them, driving one of them down completely out of control, while his formation dispersed the others. Later, on sighting another hostile scout, he engaged it and forced it down spinning and out of control. While returning to his aerodrome, he observed an enemy two seater, and though his engine was running badly and might have failed him any moment, he attacked it and drove it down in a vertical nose dive. Previous to this he had driven down one other machine, which was seen to crash, and a third completely out of control. He is a most daring and skilful pilot.

 

BROWN, Lieutenant Frederick Elliott - Bar to Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in attacking enemy aircraft. During an engagement between fourteen of our scouts and about forty enemy scouts he shot down two enemy machines completely out of control. On another occasion he attacked a formation of seven enemy scouts and destroyed one of them. He has destroyed two other enemy machines and driven down one other out of control. His courage and initiative have been a source of inspiration to all.

 

NOTES: While with No.2 Squadron, his work was primarily artillery observation; aerial combat was avoided. Nevertheless, on 25 February 1917 he shot down a Halberstadt scout in flames near Lens. With No.84 Squadron (SE.5a aircraft) he scored his first victory on 8 November 1917, shooting down out of control an enemy machine (type not specified in communiques) while with a Captain Child. He was not mentioned further in communiques until 16 February 1918 when he scored a triple victory (see MC citation). The communique reported he was leading a patrol of five SE.5a machines when they saw four hostile aircraft attacking another RFC formation. Brown led his pilots down to engage and drove one down out of control; he fired on another and saw tracers enter its fuselage, sending it spinning away out of control. His companions had chased away the other two enemy scuts. His engine now gave trouble and he turned for home. En route he encountered an LVG two-seater, and although his engine threated to stop at any moment, attacked the enemy machine, firing 150 rounds from a range of 30 yards. The enemy machine went into a vertical dive and was seen to crash by another No.84 Squadron pilot. March 1918 was a busy month for No.84 Squadron and Brown. On 11 March 1918 in company with another pilot he shot down an enemy scout that crashed near Lavergies; he destroyed another scout on 13 March 1918. On 17 March 1918 his patrol was part of a force of 14 RFC machines which fought some 40 enemy scouts; Brown was credited with shooting down two out of control. His final two victories were on 18 March and 22 March 1918 (one German aircraft shot down out of control on each occasion).

 

* * * * *

 

BROWN, Lieutenant Jonathan Martin - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918 - American of Canadian origin ? Born in Woodstock, Ontario (as was his mother); home in Saginaw, Michigan; joined RFC in Toronto, 1 August 1917; sailed from Halifax 12 January 1918. To No.8 Squadron, 30 March 918. With No.35 Squadron, 13 April to 3 October 1918 (killed in action).

 

This officer has shown exceptional skill and courage in obtaining oblique photographs of enemy positions during recent operations. These photographs were of vital importance in carrying out our attack; realising this, Lieutenant Brown, despite most adverse weather conditions, succeeded in taking them and there were of the greatest value to our troops. His conduct is deserving of the highest praise.

 

* * * * *

 

BROWN, 2nd Lieutenant LeeRoy Lowerison - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 August 1918. Born in March 1896, Westmoreland Point, New Brunswick (but elsewhere on card it says he was born 6 March 1890 in Aulac, New Brunswick). Overseas with 5th Canadian Divisional Supply Column, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 5 January 1915; discharged in 1916 as a private to accept commission with RFC; to No.4 Squadron as observer, 17 October 1916; to No.15 Squadron, 21 November 1916; wounded in March 1917; to No.26 Training Squadron, 15 April 1917; to No.44 Training Squadron, 29 August 1917; to Caproni Squadron, Italy, 6 February 1918; to No.103 Squadron, 11 March 1918; to No.57 Squadron, BEF, 5 April 1918. Taken prisoner, 8 August 1918. To No.11 Training Squadron, 5 February 1919; to No.123 (Canadian) Squadron, 28 March 1919; to No.24 Squadron, 5 February 1920.

 

Whilst on counter-battery photography this officer was attacked by two triplanes and four biplanes. His gravity tank exploded and caught fire, but blew out. His centre section struts were shot through, also his wind shield. There were altogether fifty holes in his machine. After about a quarter of an hour's fighting he reached our lines. He then returned to complete his photography, climbing to 19,000 feet. In thus returning, after having been so badly shot about he showed a splendid example of courage and determination.

 

* * * * *

 

*BROWN, 2nd Lieutenant Sydney MacGillvary - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 February 1919 - American (student, Princeton University, though home was likely in Brooklyn, New York) but on lists of "Canadian born officers". Attached to French Army for some time and served with Franco-Serbian detachment. Reported to No.29 Squadron, 3 July 1918; still there as of 7 November 1918.

 

On 28th October, when on an offensive patrol, this officer, in company with three other machines, attacked nine Fokkers; three of the latter were destroyed, 2nd Lieutenant Brown accounting for one. In addition, he has three hostile aircraft and one balloon to his credit. He is a fearless and intrepid officer.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation forwarded by Second Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 31 October 1918.

 

On the 12 September 1918 when on Offensive Patrol southeast of Bailleul with three other machines, a fight took place with four Fokkers. All four were destroyed, Lieutenant Brown accounting for one.

 

On the 19 August 1918 when on a similar duty in the same neighbourhood with four other machines, three DFW two-seaters and three Halberstadt two-seaters were engaged. Of the two machines shot down, one DFW fell to Lieutenant Brown.

 

On the 28 August 1918 when on Offensive Patrol in the Menin area with four other machines, a large formation of Fokkers was encountered. Lieutenant Brown accounted for one of the three destroyed.

 

On the 27 October 1918 when on Offensive Patrol east of Tournai with three other machines, Lieutenant Brown shot down a hostile balloon.

 

On the 29 October 1918 when on Offensive Patrol east of Avelghem with three other machines, a fight took place with nine Fokkers. Three were destroyed, Lieutenant Brown getting one of them.

 

* * * * *

 

BROWN, Lieutenant William Henry - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 22 June 1918. Born 12 March 1894. Home in Victoria, British Columbia (bank clerk). On General List; taken on strength of RFC, 4 April 1917; joined No.84 Squadron either 6 August or 27 September 1917; to Canada on 10 April 1918.

 

For conspicuous gallantly and devotion to duty. Whilst bombing an enemy aerodrome his squadron was attacked by a formation of forty enemy scouts. He engaged one of these with the result that it dived straight to the ground. He was then attacked by another machine, and by skilful piloting he succeeded in firing at close range behind its tail, with the result that it fell on its back and went down out of control. Later, whilst leading a low-flying attack on enemy troops he dropped four bombs from a very low altitude, scattering the enemy in all directions, and then at a height of 300 feet engaged them with machine gun fire. Shortly afterwards he attacked two enemy two-seater planes, crashing them both to earth. In addition to these he has shot down out of control four other hostile machines, and has displayed throughout the recent operations marked gallantry and skill.

 

* * * * *

 

BROWNE, Captain Reginald Frederick - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Home in Toronto (sale manager); overseas as Private, 2nd Canadian Divisional headquarters Sub-Staff; attached to No.3 Squadron, 23 March to 30 April 1916; appointed 2nd Lieutenant (on probation), 30 April 1916 for duty with RFC; seriously ill in late 1916 and returned to Canada on leave until April 1917; to No.11 Squadron, 19 April 1917; to No.13 Squadron, 21 January 1918; wounded, 8 October 1918; to Home Establishment, 25 October 1918. No published citation. Public Record Office Air 1/1157 has recommendation submitted by Headquarters, 3rd Brigade, Royal Air Force, 10 October 1918.

 

This officer has served for over a year and a half with the British Expeditionary Force of which the last ten months have been with No.13 Squadron. During the whole of this period he has carried out his duties of artillery observation and contact patrol work in a most conscientious manner. His devotion to duty and gallantry have been worthy of the highest praise.

 

* * * * *

 

BRUCE, Major Reginald Wyndham - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Born 1 June 1891; veteran of South African War; home given as Somerset, England. Enlisted in 28th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force; seconded to Royal Flying Corps, 1 July or 8 August 1915; served in No.10 Squadron (observer), 9 August to 1 September 1915 and again for uncertain dates later in 1915 (mentioned in RFC communiques dated 14 October, 28 November and 14 December 1915); to Home Establishment, 1 January 1916. Subsequently a balloon officer; to Kite Balloon Training Battalion, 18 July 1916; to No.18 Kite Balloon Squadron, France, 24 August 1916; to No.20 Balloon Section, Home Establsihment, 27 July 1917; to No.7 Balloon Wing, 1 November 1917 (promoted Major and appointed Squadron Commander, No.1 Balloonn Squadron, 7th Balloon Wing. Still with that unit when he relinquished his commissione, 14 July 1919. Records in National Archives of Canada, RG.24 Accession 1995-96/670 notes that he was an expert in physical fitness and had good knowledge of Lewis and Maxim machine guns.

 

 

* * * * *

 

BRUCE, Lieutenant Walter - Air Force Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. A blue card at DHist says he was from CEF, was a pilot, and had AFC in November 1918. No details and rather odd.

* * * * *

 

BRUMELL, 2nd Lieutenant Harry Peareth - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 6 March 1919. Born in Ottawa, 12 February 1897. Home in Buckingham, Quebec; joined RFC in Canada, 21 September 1917; overseas 24 March 1918; to No.218 Squadron, 28 September 1918; POW, 2 November 1918; repatriated and admitted to hospital, 29 December 1918. NOTE: Stew Taylor reputedly showed him joining No.218 Squadron in June 1918 and being shot down on 28 September 1918. No citation.

 

* * * * *

 

*BUCHANAN, Lieutenant Archie - Croix de Guerre with Palm (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 8 November 1918. American (Brooklyn, New York), shown as a 2nd Lieutenant, 16 December 1917, in RFC Canada and proceeding overseas. Destroyed a kite balloon with No.210 Squadron, 30 June 1918. Possibly a late war POW.

 

*BUCHANAN, Lieutenant Archie - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 3 December 1918.

 

On September 29 this officer displayed great gallantry. In an engagement with fifteen Fokker biplanes, owing to engine trouble he was compelled to remain under his flight; he nevertheless accounted for two enemy machines, attacking one under its tail, causing it to crash, and driving another down out of control. In addition to the foregoing this officer has destroyed three machines and driven down two out of control.

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/107/15/9/287 has recommendation dated 2 October 1918. Although substantially the same as that published, it is given here for purposes of comparison:

 

On 29 September 1918, in general engagement with 15 Fokker biplanes, pilot's engine was running badly and he was forced to remain under his flight. He attacked one enemy aircraft from under its tail and saw the machine sideslip into the ground and crash. In the same engagement he observed another enemy aircraft which had been forced down and attacked it on the tail. This machine went down out of control and pilot is almost certain that it crashed.

 

In addition to above, pilot has had the following successes:-

 

By himself - two enemy aircraft destroyed and one driven down out of control.

- one hostile kite balloon destroyed and one driven down smoking, probably destroyed.

 

With another pilot - one enemy aircraft out of control, pilot believed killed.

This same document is also found in Public Record Office Air 1/1696/204/122/13. The latter also has another report (undated) which differs in significant detail:

 

On 29 September 1918, pilot attacked one of 15 Fokker biplanes. Enemy aeroplane side-slipped into the ground and crashed. Immediately afterwards he engaged another which went down out of control. Pilot is almost certain that it crashed.

 

On 1 October, pilot attacked a two-seater which dived vertically and was lost sight of in heavy ground mist at 1,000 feet. The observer was apparently hit as he did not fire a shot.

 

On 17 October 1918, pilot landed at Ostend at 1145. Civilians stated that he was the first Englishman to land and that the enemy had left early that morning.

 

In addition to the above pilot has since 30th June 1918 destroyed two enemy machines and one hostile kite balloon and driven down three enemy machines out of control. He has also driven down one machine with the observer apparently shot.

 

* * * * *

 

BULMER, Captain George William - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 16 September 1918. Born 1 September 1898 in Dixon, Illinois of British parents; home in Toronto (accountant). Accepted as officer, RFC by RNAS in Canada, 25 April 1917. With No.22 Squadron, 25 May to 20 August 1918, when returned to Home Establishment.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty as a fighter pilot. In recent operations he has destroyed seven enemy machines and an observation balloon. By his tenacity and zeal he set a magnificent example to his squadron.

 

Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent from Headquarters, First Brigade, Royal Air Force to Headquarters, Royal Air Force, 19 May 1918. This is much more detailed than the published citation.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. As a fighting pilot he has been very successful, and his tenacity and zeal has been an example to other pilots in his squadron. He has destroyed a total of seven enemy machines, and in the attack on enemy observation balloons between Bailleul and Estaires, the balloon attacked by him was seen to crumple up and fall to earth.

 

On 17 May 1918, when returning from Escort [escorting ?] a two-seater enemy aeroplane was observed southeast of Douai. He fired 150 rounds into the enemy machine which spun, nose-dived to the ground, and crashed near Villiers, southeast of Douai.

 

On 8 May 1918, when on Offensive Patrol, six or seven Pfalz Scouts were attacked near Brebieres. The enemy aeroplane attacked by Lieutenant Bulmer fell completely out of control and another pilot saw the tail of this machine crumple up, so it was certainly destroyed.

 

On 6 May 1918, when on Offensive Patrol, three enemy aeroplanes were attacked near Fresnoy. He singled out a Pfalz Scout which, after two bursts had been fired, side-slipped and fell completely out of control.

 

In addition to the above, he has destroyed four enemy machines, two of which were destroyed on the same patrol.

 

NOTE: Notes in Harry Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum) list the following victories:

 

6 March 1918 - Observer S.J. Hunter - one enemy aircraft out of control (RFC Communique No.130)

 

16 March 1918 - Observer P.S. Williams - two enemy aircraft out of control (RFC Communique No.131)

 

23 March 1918 - Observer P.S. Williams - one enemy aircraft out of control (RFC Communique No.132)

 

6 May 1918 - Observer H.E. Elsworth - in Bristol F2b C.4888 - one enemy aircraft destroyed (out of control), Arras (near Fresay); RAF Communique No.6 erroneously reported Observer as H.E. Osworth.

 

8 May 1918 - Observer P.S. Williams - same aircraft as above - one Pfalz destroyed; Brebreres; out of control, it crumpled up (RAF Communique No.6)

 

17 May 1918 - Observer P.S. Williams - same aircraft as above - one enemy aircraft crashed southeast of Douai (RAF Communique No.7)

 

27 June 1918 - Observer not stated - same aircraft as above - one enemy aircraft out of control at Ognies Courrier (apparently not reported in communiques)

 

9 July 1918 - Observer 2nd Lieutenant J. McDonald - two enemy aircraft broyght down (RAF Communique No.15).

 

* * * * *

 

BURDEN, Captain Henry John - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 28 April 1893. Home in Toronto (architect); overseas with 75th Battalion, March 1916 and served eleven months in France joined RFC from CEF, April 1917; No.72 Squadron, 1 September to 15 December 1917; No.85 Squadron, 23 December 1917 to 5 February 1918; No.2 Air Depot, 7-16 February 1918; with No.56 Squadron, 18 February to 1 September 1918. RCAF Group Captain in Second World War; died in Toronto 28 March 1960. See biography in Wings in Space, June 1963

 

This officer took a prominent part in a most successful low bombing attack on an aerodrome. He obtained a direct hit on the objective allotted to him. He further set fire to three enemy machines on the ground with machine-gun fire. On the return journey he attacked a canal boat. In each case flying at a very low altitude. A gallant and able patrol leader who has destroyed three enemy aeroplanes and driven down one out of control, in addition to three destroyed on the ground.

 

BURDEN, Captain Henry John - Distinguished Service Order - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918.

 

Since joining his squadron in February this officer has accounted for seventeen enemy machines - twelve crashed, two driven down out of control and three destroyed in flames on the ground during an attack on an aerodrome. On the morning of the 10th August he led his patrol in three attacks and himself destroyed three enemy machines. In the evening of the same day he destroyed two more. Two days later he attacked a large number of Fokkers, seven of which were destroyed, accounting for three himself. In this encounter Captain Burden led his patrol with exceptional skill and daring.

 

BURDEN, Captain Henry John - Mention in Despatches - awarded as per London Gazette dated 31 December 1918.

 

* * * * *

 

BURGESS, Lieutenant David Luther - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 September 1917 (although apparently no citation until London Gazette dated 8 January 1919). Home in Ottawa; enlisted with 18th (or 118th) Battalion, CEF, 1 June 1916; arrived overseas, 19 October 1916; Lieutenant in 15th (Reserve) Battalion, Britain; seconded to RFC 16 April 1917; with No.25 Squadron, 31 May to 19 October 1917; to Egypt 18 December 1917 and trained as a pilot. Instructed in Britain, 23 July 1918 to 7 February 1919. Invested with award at Buckingham Palace, 13 February 1919. Relinquished commission, 3 March 1919. President, Royal Canadian Legion, 1956-1960.

 

For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in aerial fighting and on photography. As observer he has taken a large number of very successful photographs in spite of bad weather and continual opposition from the enemy. On four occasions at least he has assisted his pilot to drive down and destroy hostile aircraft.

 

NOTE: Harry Creagen Papers (National Aviation Museum) have extensive notes from his logbook as an observer. It would appear that the combats in which he participated were as follows:

 

7 July 1917 - DH.4 A7505, Pilot Captain J.F. Morris - photography and bombing; combat with six enemy aircraft, Douai; "one appeared brought down".

 

11 July 1917 - aircraft, pilot and mission as above - combat mentioned in notes but not detailed.

 

13 July 1917 - aircraft, pilot and mission as above - combat with eight enemy aircraft (no further details in notes)

 

20 July 1917 - aircraft, pilot and mission as above - combat with hostile machines (no details in notes)

 

22 July 1917 - aircraft and pilot as above - photography over Lille. Enemy aircraft believed shot down by pilot.

 

27 July 1917 - aircraft and pilot as above - photography and bombing - combat with three enemy aircraft

 

14 August 1917 - aircraft, pilot and mission as above - combat with ten enemy aircraft; one crashed and one driven down.

 

15 August 1917 - aircraft, pilot and mission as above - combat with 12 enemy aircraft; one shot down in flames.

 

19 August 1917 - aircraft and mission as above; pilot Captain A.D. Pearce - combat with two Albatross scouts (no further details in notes).

 

Public Record Office Air 1/204/36/127 has recommendation sent from Headquarters, First Brigade to Headquarters, Royal Flying Corps (date not clear but it seems to be 12 September 1917). His former unit is shown as 188th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force.

 

For courage and devotion to duty in aerial fighting and photography.

 

Lieutenant Burgess was observer to Captain Morris on all the occasions enumerated above. These two officers have taken a large number of very successful photographs during the past four weeks.

 

The "occasion enumerated above" relate to a recommendation for a Military Cross to Captain James Fitz Morris (awarded 26 July 1917) who was described thus:

 

For courage and skill in aerial fighting, and for good leadership on Photographic Reconnaissance and Offensive Patrols.:-

 

On August 8th, 1917, in very bad weather, he successfully led a formation to bomb Courrieres (?). During this raid he encountered three hostile machines and forced one to land near Seclin.

 

On August 5th, 1917, after bombing Mouveaux Aerodrome, he attacked one of three hostile scouts. About 300 rounds were fired from both guns, and the enemy machine fell in flames near Perenchies.

 

On July 22nd, 1917, whilst on photography east of Lille, his machine was twice attacked by four enemy scouts During the second fight, one of the German machines was shot down in flames. This was confirmed by anti-aircraft observers.

 

On July 11th, 1917, whilst bombing Derignies Aerodrome, nine hostile scouts attempted to cut him off from the lines. By skilful handing of his machine, the leading scout was shot down completely out of control.

 

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BURKETT, Lieutenant George Thomas William - Military Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 26 September 1917. Described as "of Canadian birth" but no details on DHist cards; issued Royal Aero Club Certificate No.4459, 31 March 1917. Unit not known.

 

With his patrol he engaged a superior force of enemy machines, and although wounded early in the engagement, continued to fight. He brought down two hostile machines, and drove off two more whilst returning to our lines with his own machine badly damaged. In spite of this, however, he succeeded in making a good landing. He displayed splendid dash and coolness under very trying circumstances,

 

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BURN, Captain Eldon Abraham - Distinguished Flying Cross - awarded as per London Gazette dated 2 November 1918. Born 22 July 1894 in Port Elgin, Ontario. Home in Waterloo, Ontario (news reporter); appointed Temporarily 2nd Lieutenant, RFC, 1 September 1917; graded as Flying Officer and confirmed in rank, 21 October 1917; with No.206 Squadron, 31 March to 21 October 1918. In No.123 (Canadian) Squadron, 5-10 March 1919 and 21 July to 29 September 1919 when placed on Unemployed List. In a letter written when applying to join the RCAF, 1941, he stated that he had spent six months after the Armistice with the Army of Occupation at Cologne and flew despatches between London and Paris during Peace Conference (this does not exactly square with known postings). He further stated that after demobilization he had tried barnstorming in Minnesota and New England (six months, "highly unprofitable"), merchant marine (three years), newspaper and publicity work thereafter. Served in RCAF as Link Instructor, 16 May 1941 to 15 February 1945 (C5522).

 

This officer has taken part in thirty-four successful raids and carried out seven long distance reconnaissances, displaying marked determination and devotion to duty. On one patrol his machine was badly damaged, both upper longerons being completely severed. Despite this he flew for another hour and completed the patrol. On another occasion he was attacked by two Fokker biplanes, one he drove down out of control. He was then compelled to land in "No Man's Land", his engine having cut out. He and his observer eventually reached our lines, having spent two hours in "No Man's Land".

 

NOTE: Public Record Office Air 1/1580 has recommendation sent by Headquarters, 2nd Brigade to RAF Headquarters.

 

On May 8th, whilst on Line Patrol, his machine was badly damaged by anti-aircraft fire, both upper longerons being completely severed. Lieutenant Burn, however, flew for another hour and completed the patrol.

 

On the 17th May, during a raid on Bercelaere, he destroyed an Albatross Scout in flames.

 

On May 19th, he destroyed a Pfalz Scout near Gheluwe, the machine breaking up in the air.

 

On June 30th, whilst on long reconnaissance, he was attacked by two Fokker biplanes. One he sent down completely out of control over Lille. His engine then cut out; however, he managed to land in No man's Land, and reached our trenches with his Observer after two hours spent in crossing No man's Land.

 

On July 29th, on return from a raid on Courtrai, the formation were attacked by over 20 enemy aeroplanes. One of these Lieutenant Burn and his Observer, Captain Carrothers, 44th Canadian Infantry, attached Royal Air Force, send [sic] down completely out of control. This machine was lost in the haze at 1,000 feet, and in consequence, could not be confirmed as destroyed.

 

Lieutenant Burn has taken part in 34 successful raids and carried out seven long distance reconnaissances.

 

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yBUSHE, Lieutenant Louis Afred - Brought to the Notice of the Secretary of State for Air in Respect of Valuable Service - Air Ministry List dated 29 August 1919 (found in Flight, issue of 4 September 1919). Canadian Forestry Corps in notice. DHist card says he was from Port of Spain, Trinidad; enlisted in 24th Battalion, Montreal, 26 November 1914; to Royal Flying Corps, 17 May 1917; appointed 2nd Lieutenant, 3 November 1917. The Annals of 100 Squadron have him serving in that unit, flying on raids as early as 11/12 September 1917 but not after night of 25/26 September 1917

 

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BUTLER, Lieutenant Fernard Charles - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born in UK; home in Stanger or Bittern Lake, Alberta (rancher). Enlisted in 19th Alberta Dragoons, 23 September 1914; wounded accidentally, April or May 1915; transferred as Lance-Corporal to RFC, 13 September 1915. Graded as Flying Officer (Observer), that date. Hospitalized, 19 September 1916; with No.65 Squadron, 18 September to 24 October 1917; to Expeditionary Force (France), 24 October 1917; to Canada, 3 July 1919; died in Bittern Lake, Alberta, 10 December 1934. Name erroneously spelled in one awards list as BATLER, but RAF List shows only F.C. Butler with MBE. Public Record Office Air 1/1160/204/5/2505 has recommendation submitted 16 October 1918.

 

For the continual display of efficiency and keenness in the execution of his duties as Wing Gunnery Officer. He has raised the gunnery of the squadrons of the 65th Wing to a satisfactory state of efficiency.

 

BUTLER, Lieutenant Fernard Charles - Croix de Guerre with Silver Star (France) - awarded as per London Gazette dated 5 April 1919.

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BUTLER, Lieutenant Fernand Charles - Member, Order of the British Empire - awarded as per London Gazette dated 1 January 1919. Born in Britain; home in Bittern Lake, Alberta; enlisted 19th Alberta Dragoons, 23 September 1914; wounded accidentally, April or May 1915. As Lance Corporal to RFC, 13 September 1915. Graded as Observer, 27 February 1916; with No.65 Squadron, 18 September to 24 October 1917; to Canada, 3 February 1919; died 10 December 1934. No citation.

 

BUTLER, Lieutenant Fernard Charles - Croix de Guerre with Silver Star - awarded as per London Gazette dated 5 April 1919.

 

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